07 to 1 91, p = 0 0172); the effect size for the rare rs3798220 v

07 to 1.91, p = 0.0172); the effect size for the rare rs3798220 variant was similar (dominant OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.67, p = 0.20), but power was limited to demonstrate significance. The combined genotype explained only a small percentage (<= 4%) of variability in Lp(a) cholesterol and prevalence of angiographic CAD. In conclusion, heritable contributions learn more of LPA rs10455872 and rs3798220 to Lp(a) cholesterol levels and to angiographic CAD were prospectively assessed in this study. The percentage of intersubject variability in Lp(a) cholesterol and the percentage of prevalent CAD explained

were small. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective-Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal CX-6258 vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive.\n\nMethods and Results-In the present study, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in SMC proliferation and neointimal remodeling. We demonstrate that mitogens induce transcription

of HDAC 1, 2, and 3 in SMC. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either HDAC 1, 2, or 3 and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC prevented mitogen-induced SMC proliferation. The mechanisms underlying this reduction of SMC proliferation by HDAC inhibition involve a growth arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle that is due to BVD-523 cost an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. HDAC inhibition resulted in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip). Furthermore, HDAC inhibition repressed mitogen-induced

cyclin D1 mRNA expression and cyclin D1 promoter activity. As a result of this differential cell cycle-regulatory gene expression by HDAC inhibition, the retinoblastoma protein retains a transcriptional repression of its downstream target genes required for S phase entry. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating that HDAC inhibition decreased neointima formation and expression of cyclin D1 in a murine model of vascular injury.\n\nConclusion-These findings identify HDAC as a critical component of a transcriptional cascade regulating SMC proliferation and suggest that HDAC might play a pivotal role in the development of proliferative vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:851-860.)”
“Synchronous neurotransmission is triggered when Ca(2+) binds to synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), a synaptic-vesicle protein that interacts with SNAREs and membranes.

Moreover, in a mouse xenograft model, 5 nmol/kg p,p’-DDT resulted

Moreover, in a mouse xenograft model, 5 nmol/kg p,p’-DDT resulted in increased tumor size, oxidative stress and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results indicated that low concentrations of p,p’-DDT promoted colorectal cancer growth through Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, which was mediated by oxidative stress. The finding suggests an association between low concentrations of p,p’-DDT exposure and colorectal cancer progression. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To determine if newer influenza vaccines can safely

improve seroprotection rates of older adults, we compared three licensed trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs) in a randomized, Selleck Vactosertib controlled trial with evaluator blinding. Participants were non-frail adults bigger than = 65 y old, annually TIV-immunized. Study vaccines included intradermal (IDV), MF59-adjuvanted (ADV) and subunit (TIV) formulations

of equal BLZ945 in vivo potency and strain composition. Blood was obtained before vaccination (V1) and 21 (V2) and 180 d (V3) afterward and tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. Safety diaries were completed daily by participants and specific tolerability questions were posed regarding injections and symptoms. In total, 911 participants were immunized and 887 (97.4%) completed V3. Groups had similar demographics. General symptom rates post-vaccination were similar among groups.

Rates of injection site redness after IDV/ADV/TIV were 75%/13%/13% and rates of pain were 29%/38%/20%, respectively, but each vaccine was well tolerated, with symptoms causing little bother. Baseline antibody titers did not differ significantly among groups but B/Brisbane titers were too high for meaningful response assessments. At V2, seroprotection Sapanisertib in vivo rates (HAI titer bigger than = 40) were highest after ADV, the rate advantage over IDV and TIV being significant at 11.8% and 11.4% for H3N2 and 10.2% and 12.5% for H1N1, respectively. At day 180, seroprotection rates had declined similar to 25% and no longer differed significantly among groups. While IDV and TIV were also well tolerated, ADV induced modestly higher antibody titers in seniors to influenza A strains at 3 weeks but not 6 months post-vaccination. Immune responses to IDV and TIV were similar in this population.”
“IL-15 has pivotal roles in the control of CD8(+) memory T cells and has been investigated as a therapeutic option in cancer therapy. Although IL-15 and IL-2 share many functions together, including the stimulation of CD8 T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production, the different in vivo roles of IL-15 and IL-2 have been increasingly recognized. Here, we explored the different effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells from resected breast tumors.

Metastases to the skin or subcutaneous tissue are rare Here we p

Metastases to the skin or subcutaneous tissue are rare. Here we present a 49-year-old female patient with solitary scalp metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma FTC which was revealed with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. PET showed flourodeoxiglucose avid lesion in the left vertex scalp. Scalp lesion was removed totally and histopathological examination revealed well-differentiated

thyroid cancer metastasis.”
“Though recent P005091 studies have reported the importance of several endogenous cytoprotective factors including heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) that protect intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from the effects of stress and injury, the exact mechanism of HSP70 underlying

LY294002 cytoprotection against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced IEC injury remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms by which HSP70 protected IECs against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and focused on the effects of HSP70 on IEC apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Recombinant adenoviruses (Ad-HSP70) were transfected into the intestinal epithelial cell line in vitro and then suffered from 90 min of hypoxia followed by 60 min of reoxygenation. The LDH leaking, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m) were evaluated after hypoxia/reoxygenation. The expression of HSP70, cytochrome c and Bcl-2 protein was determined by Western blot or immunofluorescence analysis. The results show that HSP70 protein was highly expressed in the IECs at 48

h following Ad-HSP70 HDAC inhibitor transfection. HSP70 overexpression could reduce LDH leakage and cell apoptosis in IECs following hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Furthermore, the overexpression of HSP70 significantly reversed the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in IECs during hypoxia/reoxygenation. HSP70 overexpression was also associated with the increasing expression of Bcl-2 protein in IECs during hypoxia/reoxygenation. We conclude that HSP70 protects IECs against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced apoptosis through increasing Bcl-2 expression, which in turn could inhibit the mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway that involves the disruption of the Delta Psi m and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This work reports the physico-chemical characterisation of the micellar structures formed by a saponin fraction obtained from an important South American species, Ilex paraguariensis (mate). The mate saponin-enriched fraction (MSF) mainly comprises triterpenic glycosides and was obtained from mate green fruits through solid-phase extraction.

All referrals (aged 1435 years) to the diagnostic center in Amste

All referrals (aged 1435 years) to the diagnostic center in Amsterdam were also assessed with the CAARMS. Results: The screening detected a three-fold higher prevalence of at-risk mental states: these subjects were older and more often female. manova showed significantly higher scores for the screened population on depression, social anxiety, distress with positive symptoms, and a higher rate of transition to psychosis within 12 months. Conclusion: The screening method detects more patients with at-risk mental states than the referral method. The latter method is biased to young male patients in an earlier

prodromal stage and a lower transition rate.”
“Purpose Fever occurring in a neutropenic patient remains Cilengitide in vivo a common life-threatening complication of cancer chemotherapy, and febrile neutropenia (FN) is recognized as a dose-limiting factor (DLF) in cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significant covariate associated with the risk of FN occurrence in Japanese patients.\n\nMethods A stepwise logistic regression was conducted using data from Japanese cancer patients treated with docetaxel. Based on those results, an equation was established which predicts the probability of FN occurrence.\n\nResults From the result of a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, performance status factor (PS*), which is set to 1 if performance status factor

is 2 or 3, and to 0 otherwise Small molecule library and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) were selected as covariates significantly associated (p < 0.05) with FN occurrence. The obtained equation to predict the probability (P) of docetaxel-induced FN occurrence is P = 1/[1 + exp-(1.29 x AUC + 1.41 x PS* -3.52)]. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the best cut-off value of FN probability to differentiate between the presence and absence of FN was 0.61.\n\nConclusions An equation was developed to predict the probability of FN occurrence for Japanese patients treated with docetaxel. It was found that FN may not occur when the probability

of FN occurrence calculated by the predictive equation is less than 0.61. BIX 01294 in vitro Therefore, the predictive equation for FN occurrence may be used for selecting the appropriate dose to avoid the occurrence of FN.”
“Objectives-We aimed to determine whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) on chromosome 9p21 were associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese Han population.\n\nMethods and Results-We determined the genotypes of rs2383206 and rs2383207 on chromosome 9p21 in 1360 CHD patients and 1360 age-and sex-frequency-matched controls from an unrelated Chinese Han population. GG genotypes in rs2383207 occurred more frequently in CHD patients compared to controls, and the odds ratio ( OR) was 1.52 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.04), after adjusting for conventional risk factors.

“1 Increasingly, ecologists are using functional and phyl

“1. Increasingly, ecologists are using functional and phylogenetic approaches to quantify the relative importance of stochastic, abiotic filtering and biotic filtering processes shaping the pattern of species co-occurrence. A remaining challenge in functional and phylogenetic analyses of tropical tree communities is to successfully integrate the functional and phylogenetic structure Trichostatin A mw of tree communities across spatial and size scales and habitats in a single analysis.\n\n2. We analysed the functional and phylogenetic structure of tree assemblages in a 20-ha tropical forest dynamics plot in south-west China. Because the

influence of biotic interactions may become more apparent as cohorts age, on local scales, and in resource-rich environments, we perform our analyses across three size classes, six spatial scales and six distinct habitat types, using 10 plant functional traits and a molecular phylogeny for the >400 tree taxa found in the plot.\n\n3. All traits, except leaf area and stem-specific resistance, had significant, albeit weak phylogenetic signal. For canopy species, phylogenetic clustering in small and medium size classes turned to phylogenetic overdispersion in the largest size

class and this change in dispersion with size was found in each habitat type and across all spatial scales. On fine spatial scales, functional Wnt inhibitor dispersion changed from clustering to overdispersion with increasing size classes. However, on larger spatial scales assemblages were functionally clustered for

all size classes and habitats.\n\n4. Phylogenetic and functional structure across Cl-amidine research buy spatial and size scales and habitats gave strong support for a deterministic model of species co-occurrence rather than for a neutral model. The results also support the hypothesis that abiotic determinism is more important at larger scales, while biotic determinism is more important on smaller scales within habitats.”
“Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) Amyloidosis is a condition whereby misfolded proteins generated by plasma cells deposit in tissues causing organ dysfunction. Chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant when eligible are standard treatment options. Several studies report long-term outcomes of patients post-transplant. However, there is a paucity of literature describing outcomes of relapsed patients post-transplant. We performed a retrospective study to assess outcomes and therapies employed upon relapse after transplant. Between 1996 and 2009, 410 patients received transplant at the Mayo Clinic as first-line therapy. Of those patients, 42 (10%) died within 3months of transplant, 64 (16%) died without documented relapse, 158 (38%) were alive without documented progression, and 146 (36%) had documented progression. Those 146 patients are the subject of our study, and their median time to hematologic relapse/progression was 23.6months (95%CI 18.3, 26.3months).

A wealth of data now demonstrate that the microglia


A wealth of data now demonstrate that the microglia

have very diverse effector functions, in line with macrophage Populations in other organs. The term activated microglia needs to be qualified to reflect the distinct and very different states of activation-associated effector functions in different disease states. Manipulating the effector functions of microglia has the potential to modify the outcome of diverse neurological diseases.”
“AimThis study aims to evaluate adherence to a clinical guideline for screening and prevention of neonatal hypoglycaemia on the post-natal wards.\n\nMethodsRetrospective chart review of 581 healthy term neonates born at a tertiary maternity hospital. Indications for hypoglycaemia screening included small for gestational age this website (SGA), infants of diabetic mothers (IDM; gestational, Type 1 or 2), symptomatic hypoglycaemia, macrosomia and wasted (undernourished) appearance. Outcomes HKI-272 chemical structure were protocol entry and adherence with hypoglycaemia prevention strategies including early and frequent feeding and timely blood glucose measurement.\n\nResultsOf 115 neonates screened for hypoglycaemia,

67 were IDM, 19 were SGA (including two both IDM and SGA), and two were macrosomic. One IDM and one SGA were not screened. Twenty-two neonates were screened for a reason not identifiable from the medical record, and 13 neonates were SGA by a definition different see more to the guideline definition, including five who were also IDM. Guideline adherence was variable. Few neonates (41 of 106, 39%) were fed in the first post-natal hour, and blood glucose measurement occurred later than recommended for 41 of 106 (39%) of neonates.\n\nConclusionsMost IDM and SGA neonates were screened. While guideline adherence

overall was comparable with other studies, neonates were fed late. We recommend staff education about benefits of early (within the first hour) frequent breastfeeding for neonates at risk.”
“Spatial neglect can be characterized by a “magnetic attraction” towards the right side of a visual stimulus array and a selection of stimuli from that hemispace. This study examined whether these distinctive characteristics in visuo-motor space are also evident in representational number space. Given that numbers are thought to be represented along a left-to-right oriented mental number line, an affinity for the spontaneous selection of larger numbers was anticipated for neglect patients. Contrary to this expectation, neglect patients (n = 20) picked a similar range of numbers compared to controls (n = 17) when generating a number between 1000 and 10 000 and when playing an imaginary lottery game.

They were then separated by 2DE and transferred by Western blot o

They were then separated by 2DE and transferred by Western blot onto low fluorescent PVDF-membranes, followed by incubation with the three primary anti-gliadin antibodies one by one. Detection of the reacting proteins used anti-mouse antibody which was labelled with fluorescent dye Cy5. The use of this technique made it possible to co-detect the 2DE-image of the reference material proteins (Cy3) and proteins reacting with the respective antibody (Cy5). The three investigated antibodies had dissimilar reactivities with different proteins of the reference gliadin. Antibodies R5 and PN3 reacted mainly with

gliadin fractions, antibody 401.21 mainly with high molecular weight glutenins. The results confirm the individual specificity of these antibodies and demonstrate the importance of validating immunochemical methods for gluten detection. (C) 2009 Elsevier PXD101 in vitro Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“An evolving hyper-network model is proposed for better describing some complex systems. A concept of joint degree is introduted, and the evolving mechanism of the hyper-network is given with respect to the joint degree. The hyper-degree distribution

click here of this evolving hyper-network is derived based on a rate equation method and is shown to obey a power law, non-Gaussian distribution. Furthermore, the synchronization in a hyper-network of coupled dynamical systems is investigated for the first time. By calculating the joint degree matrix, several simple yet useful synchronization criteria are obtained and are illustrated numerically in specific examples. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Previous studies show that surface immobilized bisphosphonates improve the fixation of stainless steel screws in rat tibia after 2-8 weeks of implantation. We report here about the immobilization of a potent bisphosphonate, zoledronate, to crosslinked

fibrinogen Buparlisib PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor by the use of another technique, i.e. ethyl-dimethyl-aminopropylcarbodiimide (EDC)/imidazole immobilization. Bone fixation of zoledronate-coated screws was compared to screws coated with crosslinked fibrinogen only and ditto with EDC/N-hydroxy-succinimide immobilized pamidronate. Fixation in rat tibia was evaluated by a pull-out test at either 2 or 6 weeks after implantation. Both bisphosphonate coatings increased the pull-out force at both time points, and zoledronate showed a significantly higher pull-out force than pamidronate. To further evaluate the new coating technique we also performed a morphometric study, focusing on the area surrounding the implant. The zoledronate coating resulted in an increased bone density around the screws compared to controls. No pronounced increase was seen around the pamidronate coated screws. Together, the results demonstrate the possibility of obtaining a significant local therapeutic effect with minute amounts of surface immobilized zoledronate.

Methods We examined primary outcomes by National Institutes o

\n\nMethods We examined primary outcomes by National Institutes of Health selleckchem Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and QoL by Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) and European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D) from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Using Spearman correlations and logistic

regression, we described the relationships between QoL mRS, NIHSS, and BI at 3 months, stratified by respondent (patient or proxy). Using (2) analyses, we examined the mismatch between good primary outcome (mRS 1, NIHSS 5, or BI 95) but poor QoL, and poor primary outcome (mRS 3, NIHSS 20, or BI 60) but good QoL.\n\nResults Patient-assessed QoL had a stronger association with mRS (EQ-5D weighted score n=2987, P<0.0001, r=-0.7, r(2)=0.53; SIS recovery n=2970, P<0.0001, r=-0.71, r(2)=0.52). Proxy responses had a stronger association with BI

(EQ-5D weighted score n=837, P<0.0001, r=0.78, r(2)=0.63; SIS recovery n=867, P<0.0001, r=0.68, r(2)=0.48). mRS explained more of the variation in QoL (EQ-5D weighted score=53%, recovery by SIS v3.0=52%) than NIHSS or BI and resulted in fewer mismatches between good primary outcome and poor QoL (P<0.0001, EQ-5D weighted score=8.5%; SIS recovery=10%; SIS-16=4.4%).\n\nConclusions The mRS seemed to align closely with stroke survivors’ interests, capturing more information on QoL than either NIHSS or BI. This further supports its recommendation as a primary outcome measure in acute stroke randomized controlled trials.”
“The causes of megafaunal extinctions in North America have been widely Small molecule library price debated but remain poorly understood. Mammoths (Mammuthus spp.) in the American Southwest were hunted by Clovis people during a period of rapid climate change, just before the regional onset of Younger Dryas cooling and mammoth extirpation. Thus, these mammoths may provide key insights into late Pleistocene

extinction processes. Here we reconstruct the seasonal diet and climatic conditions experienced by mammoths in the San Pedro Valley of Arizona, using the carbon (C-13/C-12) and oxygen (O-18/O-16) isotope compositions BTSA1 of tooth enamel. These records suggest that Clovis mammoths experienced a warm, dry climate with sufficient summer rainfall to support seasonal C-4 plant growth. Monsoon intensity may have been reduced relative to the preceding time period, but there is no isotopic evidence for severe drought. However, it is possible that the “Clovis drought”, inferred from stratigraphic evidence, occurred suddenly at the end of the animals’ lives and thus was not recorded in the enamel isotopic compositions. Unlike mammoths that lived before the Last Glacial Maximum, Clovis mammoths regularly increased C-4 grass consumption during summer, probably seeking seasonally green grasslands farther from the river valley. This predictable seasonal behavior may have made mammoths easier to locate by Clovis hunters.

“Background: The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (

“Background: The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is used for assessing nicotine dependence. A shorter test derived from the FTND used for the general population is the Heavy Smoking Index (HSI) (six questions vs. two). The objective of this study is to compare the validity of the HSI versus the FTND.\n\nMethods: A survey of tobacco use in the general population was carried out in the northern Spanish region of Galicia using both the FTND and the HSI to study a representative sample of 1655 daily smokers. The HSI was compared with the FTND, considered the gold standard. Measures of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated. Concordance

XMU-MP-1 between the tests was also established (Cohen’s kappa).\n\nResults: Cohen’s kappa showed good agreement between measures (Kappa = 0.7); specificity values were also high (Sp = 96.2%). Sensitivity analysis

in females (Se = 62.3%) did not show good agreement.\n\nConclusions: The HSI can be used as a reasonably good screening test in order to identify daily smokers with high nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, for populations or subpopulations having low nicotine dependence, such as women, the FTND is more reliable.”
“In this study, zinc-contaminated soils were chosen as a candidate material for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from hot coal-derived gas. Laboratory www.selleckchem.com/products/mln-4924.html experiments showed that H2S was decreased to less than 10 ppm when the zinc-contaminated soils were reacted with H2S. The best removal temperature of H2S was found to be at 550A degrees C in the operating conditions. In addition to zinc species, free iron oxides in contaminated soils also performed an active species to react with H2S and enhanced the sulfur capacity. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/liproxstatin-1.html Through the XPS analysis, iron sulfide (FeS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) were the major products after removal experiments. Regeneration experimental results indicated that

the zinc-contaminated soils can be regenerated by pass diluted air and thus be reused on the removal of H2S for many times.”
“Background: While single shot femoral nerve blocks and indwelling femoral nerve catheters provide significant pen-operative analgesia, there are small but serious risks of neurovascular complications. We aimed to determine the incidence and characterise the nature of neural complications arising from femoral nerve blocks performed for knee surgery.\n\nMethods: One thousand eight hundred and two patients receiving a femoral nerve block for knee surgery during the study period were screened. Patients with possible neurological symptoms were evaluated with a detailed physical examination and self-report questionnaires. Also measures of depression, anxiety and tension/stress were collected.\n\nResults: In the patients screened, an incidence of 1.94% was found. Of the 24 patients available for testing, 4 had bilateral symptoms following bilateral nerve blocks.

8%) violated the medial cortex and 22 screws (17 6%) violated the

8%) violated the medial cortex and 22 screws (17.6%) violated the anterior cortex of the vertebral body. No screws violated the lateral cortex of the pedicle-rib unit. There were no complications associated with screw misplacement.

Conclusion. In scoliosis patients with extremely small Napabucasin research buy thoracic pedicles, our pedicle screw placement method targeting the presumed medial margin in a true PA C-arm image allows easy application with accuracy and

safety, which would not possible by any other method described so far.”
“In this study, Psyllium and acrylic acid based polymeric networks were synthesized under different reaction conditions such as in-air, in-vacuum, and under the influence of gamma-radiations

using potassium persulphate (KPS)-hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA) as an initiator-crosslinker system. Initially, optimization of varied reaction parameters was performed under all the different reaction conditions. The synthesized networks were then characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, TGA/DTA, and XRD techniques. It has been found that the percent grafting varies with varying reaction conditions with maximum grafting (138 +/- 1.15%) reported in case of synthesis carried-out in-vacuum followed by the synthesis in-air (125 +/- 1.00%) and then in case of synthesis under the influence of gamma-radiations (124 6 1.15%). (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1874-1883, 2012″
“Diacylglycerol BIX 01294 nmr acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyse the final step of the triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis CX-6258 of the Kennedy pathway. Two major gene families have been shown to encode DGATs, DGAT1 (type-1) and DGAT2 (type-2). Both genes encode membrane-bound proteins, with no sequence homology to each other. In this study, the molecular cloning and characterization of a type-2 DGAT cDNA from olive is presented. Southern blot analysis showed that OeDGAT2 is represented by a single copy in the

olive genome. Comparative transcriptional analysis revealed that DGAT1 and DGAT2 are developmentally regulated and share an overall overlapping but distinct transcription pattern in various tissues during vegetative growth. DGAT2 is highly expressed in mature or senescing olive tissues. In flowers, the expression of DGAT1 was almost undetectable, while DGAT2 transcripts accumulated at the later stages of both anther and ovary development. Differential gene regulation was also detected in the seed and mesocarp, two drupe compartments that largely differ in their functional roles and mode of lipid accumulation. DGAT1 appears to contribute for most of the TAG deposition in seeds, whereas, in the mesocarp, both DGAT1 and DGAT2 share an overlapping expression pattern. During the last stages of mesocarp growth, when TAGs are still accumulating, strong up-regulation of DGAT2 but a marked decline of DGAT1 transcript levels were detected.