In Italy, irrigation accounts for about 50% of total water use an

In Italy, irrigation accounts for about 50% of total water use and irrigated agriculture covers about 27% of usable farmland [2].Consequently, improving irrigation water use efficiency (i.e., the ratio between applied water and crop yield) is decisive to satisfy the increased world demand for food and other agricultural products. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crops (as developed by means of conventional or recombinant DNA-based breeding) and/or through the application of efficient irrigation technology. Despite the efforts made in recent years, irrigation efficiency (i.e., the amount of water stored in the crop root zone compared to the amount of applied water) is still unsatisfactory (less than 40%) [1] and its improvement is a key goal for the future.

Irrigation efficiency depends on the type of irrigation used (for instance, surface irrigation wastes much more water than pressurized overhead or drip irrigation) and on irrigation scheduling, which is the method used to determine the amount of water to be applied to a crop and the timing for application. Since it determines the crop��s water use and influences its yield, irrigation scheduling has a remarkable effect on water use efficiency.Irrigation scheduling is crucial in intensive agriculture, since under-irrigation generally results in reduced crop yield and quality. On the other hand, over-irrigation increases the nutrient requirements of the crop and its vulnerability to diseases, the energy costs for water pumping, water loss and environmental pollution due to the leaching of nutrients applied to the crop with conventional fertilization or fertigation (the technique of supplying fertilizers dissolved in the irrigation water).

Thompson et al. [3] reported that the inadequate management of drip irrigation, which in many operations is still based on grower��s experience, is one of the reasons for nitrate leaching in greenhouse tomato production in Almeria, Spain Carfilzomib (at present, the largest greenhouse area in the world).The goal of an efficient irrigation program is to supply the crop with enough water while minimizing water waste due to deep percolation and runoff. Different approaches to irrigation scheduling have been developed, each having both advantages and disadvantages [4]. Innovative methods based on the direct monitoring of plant water relations have been also proposed for irrigation scheduling [4].

It is concluded that smart attackers can successfully disrupt the

It is concluded that smart attackers can successfully disrupt the entire communication channel in the network.The rest of the paper is categorized into six sections. Section 2 and Section 3 outline the major security issues and threats in WBAN. Section 4 describes the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN. In Section 5, we identify possible attacks on the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure. Section 6 presents simulation results. The final section concludes our work.2.?Security Issues and RequirementsA WBAN is a special type of network which shares some characteristics with traditional WSNs but differs in many others such as strict security and low-power consumption. It is mandatory to understand the type of WBAN applications before the integration of a suitable security mechanism.

The correct understanding will lead us towards a strong security mechanism that will protect the system from possible threats. The key security requirements in WBANs are discussed below.2.1. Data ConfidentialityLike WSNs, Data confidentiality is considered to be the most important issue in WBANs. It is required to protect the data from disclosure. WBANs should not leak patient��s vital information to external or neighbouring networks. In medical applications, the nodes collect and forward sensitive data to the coordinator. An adversary can eavesdrop on the communication, and can overhear the critical information. This eavesdropping may cause severe damage to the patient since the adversary can use the acquired data for many illegal purposes.

The standard approach to protect the data secure is to encrypt it with a secure key that can only be decrypted by the intended receivers. The use of symmetric key Entinostat encryption is the most reliable for WBANs since public-key cryptography is too costly for the energy-constraint sensor nodes.2.2. Data IntegrityKeeping the data confidential does not protect it from external modifications. An adversary can always alter the data by adding some fragments or by manipulating the data within a packet. This packet can later be forwarded to the coordinator. Lack of data integrity mechanism is sometimes very dangerous especially in case of Batimastat life-critical events (when emergency data is altered). Data loss can also occur due to bad communication environment.2.3. Data AuthenticationIt confirms the identity of the original source node. Apart from modifying the data packets, the adversary can also change a packet stream by integrating fabricated packets. The coordinator must have the capability to verify the original source of data.

s at, which represents nicotinamidase similar to Arabidopsis NIC1

s at, which represents nicotinamidase similar to Arabidopsis NIC1 and is linked to at least three defense hubs. One of the connecting hub genes, Cit. 23352. 1. S1 at, is closest to Arabidopsis RLP33, and another two hubs, Cit. 10594. 1. S1 at and Cit. 21654. 1. S1 s at, represent EP3 like chitinase genes. Although Cit. 4553. 1. S1 s at itself is not HLB responsive, the above three defense hubs to which it connects were reported to be up regulated in some of the transcriptomic studies. The finding that the defense and hormone hubs are intertwined or overlapped indicates a potentially important role for hormones in the HLB response in citrus. Also given by the increasingly clear roles for some hor mones such as ethylene, ABA, JA and SA in plant defense response, we decided to analyze in more detail the hor mone response subnetwork.

In the HLB response network, GO terms for the response to auxin, GA, ABA, ethylene, JA and SA are overrepresented based on the hypergeometric method provided in the agriGO web tool and thus the nodes for these GO terms are color coded in the hormone response subnetwork Anacetrapib and listed in Additional file 9. It should be noted that four of these six overrepresented hor mone GO terms are also determined to be overrepresented by using several algorithms implemented in the R package topGO which are proposed to eliminate local dependencies between GO terms. It has been demonstrated that SA signaling is important for both local disease resistance and systemic acquired resistance and a recent report showed the success in engineering the NPR1 mediated SA signaling pathway to improve citrus resistance to another destructive disease canker.

Therefore, we used the SA response subnetwork as an example of performing the spe cific hormone response network analysis. Using 49 SA re sponse Probesets as the seed nodes, we constructed the SA response subnetwork consisting of 476 Probesets and 631 interactions. In the SA re sponse subnetwork, there are two major subsets, each with several large hubs. The first major subset contains tran scription factors similar to Arabidopsis AS1 and WRKY40, protein degradation component UBQ10 and carbohydrate metabolic enzyme GSTU7. The second major subset of the SA response subnetwork has two large hubs, both of which represent the UBQ10 like protein degradation component.

A further analysis on this subset revealed that besides the two UBQ10 hubs, two other tran scription factors closest to AS1 and MYB16 serve as smaller hubs linking the larger UBQ10 hubs. WRKY, MYB and AS1 like transcription factors have been reported to play im portant roles in Arabidopsis defense responses. Ubiqutin mediated proteasome has also been shown to be critical for plant disease resistance. Ac cumulating evidence suggest that WRKY, MYB and AS1 controlled transcriptional events and ubiqutin mediated proteasomal degradation are critical for SA signaling. Therefore, these results strongly indicate that protein degradation and transcri

However virtually everyone already has a smartphone in their pock

However virtually everyone already has a smartphone in their pocket. Smartphone ownership in the United States increased by 5% to 110 million from February to May 2012 alone and this trend appears to continue [18]. Performing classification using the smartphone potentially makes the technology available to everyone at all levels without additional hardware but a cheap vest.Figure 1.Location of Smartphone.Whether or not player monitoring technology is allowed in competition varies from sport to sport. Both low-cost solutions, e.g., miCoach or Nike+, and high-end offerings, e.g., GPSports, are used widely at all levels in training sessions and competition (when allowed). However, in both cases the level of automatic data analysis provided for understanding player activity is quite limited.

Our technology can be considered to be a low-cost solution that provides finer grained information about players’ activity based on an automatic classification framework.Athletes can take advantage of this technology to judge their overall match and training participation, physiotherapists could be notified of potential injuries and coaches could factor this information into their team selection. In sports where the wearing of sensors is forbidden during competitive matches, this technology can still be used in training environments to access an athlete’s performance. We set our sample rate to a low value that current smartphones can easily accommodate (16�C22 fps) when logging raw accelerometer signals.

Since the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) correlates the input signal with a mother wavelet function, the choice of mother wavelet function is a important activity that has a significant impact on the performance of any application using wavelets. Similarly the amount of times the DWT decomposes a signal, referred to as the DWT level, has a direct impact on performance. The length of time chosen to separate activities is called the window length and has a direct effect on classification accuracy. Therefore, in this work, we also examine the effect of contrasting types of mother wavelet functions, chosen DWT level and window length on classification performance and comp
Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) is a broad-spectrum insecticide widely used in agriculture.

Electrochemical immunosensors based on the high specificity of hapten (pesticides Brefeldin_A such as carbofuran) and antibody (Ab) interactions have been used to detect or quantify a specific pesticide. Compared with conventional methods for the determination of carbofuran, electrochemical immunosensors have many advantages, including simple instrumentation, easy operation, rapid response, high sensitivity, selectivity and high compatibility with advanced nanotechnology and micromachining technologies [1�C4].

A key factor for the success of such systems is the smooth, easy

A key factor for the success of such systems is the smooth, easy and reliable integration of all hardware components and the integration of the hardware components with the higher level of the system performing monitoring and reasoning on the data. This is especially of importance in home care monitoring, as the system needs to be deployed in a private home and, therefore, requires a quick installation, adaptability to changes in sensor configuration and reliability over long periods of time. The GiraffPlus project is an EU FP7-funded project in which we develop and thoroughly evaluate a complete system that collects daily behavioral and physiological data from distributed sensors, performs context recognition, a long-term trend analysis and presents the information via a personalized interface.

GiraffPlus supports social interaction between primary users (elderly) and secondary users (formal and informal caregivers), thereby offering an immediate and obvious benefit, which makes the system attractive and worth using. The GiraffPlus system is named after one of its components: the Giraff telepresence robot. The robot uses a Skype-like interface, allowing caregivers to virtually visit an elderly person in the home. The GiraffPlus system also includes a network of sensors placed in the home. These include physiological sensors for, e.g., weight, blood pressure and pulse oximetry, and environmental sensors. Data from these sensors are stored in a database and processed by an advanced context recognition system, which uses constraint-based temporal reasoning in order to detect events on-line or perform inferences about long-term behaviors and trends.

Secondary users can access the data and events remotely through personalized services: users may have access to different data, may be interested in different events and may want the information presented in different ways.This paper focuses on the architecture of the GiraffPlus system and, in particular, the hardware components and their integration via a middleware infrastructure. It first presents related work, then an overview of the system, the hardware and software components (and, in particular, the middleware), the data storage, the context recognition and configuration planning. Finally, the paper reports on the testing of the system and presents the conclusions.

The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL) tested in a real environment. It combines the acquisition of sensor data via a flexible and adaptable Brefeldin_A middleware with high-level reasoning and, in particular, context recognition.2.?Related WorkThe increase in lifestyle related diseases, together with an aging population, are important driving forces to develop systems that facilitate the monitoring of health status independent of location: at home, at work or in the hospital.

The use of capacitive sensing [5] is another possible sensing met

The use of capacitive sensing [5] is another possible sensing method, but it requires attaching a mesh-shape to achieve the interaction between transmitter and receiver. One of the most widespread multi-touch technologies uses the Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR) proposed by Jeff Han [6]. A comparison of multi-touch technologies is given in Table 1. The most common systems are expensive because they use special control hardware and require bulky equipment. A few studies, such as those done by Apple and N-trig [7,8], have focused on projected-capacitive technology for portable devices. A capacitive coupling between neighboring electrodes changes its capacitance as an object approaches the field lines projected from one electrode to another.

However, projected-capacitive technology has a limited maximum size because the number of sensor electrodes needs to increase geometrically as the screen size increases. In multi-touch sensors, there is no organic resistance material between the two electrodes. It is very difficult to correctly identify which element was really touched because the mutual conduction of column and row electrodes is easily confused during the column and row scanning processes. In addition, multi-touch screens are mostly made of glass, which is difficult to bend.Table 1.Comparison of multi-touch characteristics.Therefore, we propose a novel flexible multi-touch sensor design that prints organic thixotropic resistance materials on a top polyimide (PI) film. We also use an algorithm matrix and control system scanning to solve the array matrix for multi-touch switch identification in the tactile sensors.

Flexible electronics actuators for realizing large scale and low-cost applications have been gradually developed in recent years [11,12]. Especially, flexible displays [13,14] and flexible organic transistors [15-17] have been successfully demonstrated using printing technologies. A few studies on flexible electronics sensors, usually using solid components integrated into polymer materials, have focused on small scale pressure [18], temperature [19,20], and humidity [21] sensors. Fabrication technologies for flexible electronics include screen printing [22], ink-jet printing [23,24], and the roll to roll process [25].We have designed a gap between the bottom electrode and the resistance layer to eliminate erroneous signals during bending actions.

For optimal flexible structure characteristics, a protrusion (bump) on the top membrane is Brefeldin_A used to enhance the sensing sensitivity response. A high viscosity thixotropic material is used to print the thick bump structures to reduce the diffusive effects and dimensional shrinkage after printing and curing. Mechanical properties were investigated by analysis of the deflection and stress distributions using finite element analysis (FEA).

Although this method has been demonstrated to provide a good appr

Although this method has been demonstrated to provide a good approximation to the change of curvature [2, 28, 5], the quality of estimation depends on how well the neighbourhood points are distributed. The angle between normal vectors and the difference between the changes of curvature of a point and its corresponding points are our criteria for selection of corresponding point pair. Using the information from the previous sections, first the angle between approximate normal vectors of pi1 and pi2 can be expressed as:��(pi1;pj2)=cos?1(npi1?npj2)(3)where npi1 and npj2 are the respective approximate normal vectors of the points. Then the difference in changes of curvature between two points can be written:��(pi1;pj2)=|Mcc(pi1)?Mcc(pj2)|(4) where Mcc(pi1) and Mcc(pj2)are the approximate changes of curvature of pi1 and pi2.

The normal vector of a point is estimated by covariance analysis of the point and its neighbourhood points and the change of curvature is estimated as the ratio of eigenvalues of the covariance matrix.2.2. Description of the proposed algorithm: GP-ICPThe amount of data to process in order to find correspondence is very large, which limits the robustness of registration algorithms. The higher curvature points may have more valuable information than the lower curvature points since they could be edges or corners. Therefore, in the early stages of iteration, we only take into account higher curvature points and then, as iteration proceeds, lower curvature points also are included to improve the registration.

Our method for the registration of three-dimensional, partially overlapping and unorganised point clouds without good a priori alignment can be briefly described as follows. Note that the list of threshold values used in the proposed method is shown in Table 1 and it is assumed that there is no scale different between two point clouds.Table 1.Threshold values are used in the GP-ICP.Find the k neighbourhood points of every point in two point clouds named C1 and C2. Estimate the geometric primitives of the points.Take initial sample points, p1��niter=11, whose change of curvature is greater than Tnormaliter=i where niter=i is the number of sample in the ith iteration where Tnormaliter=i is the threshold of the angle between the normal vector in the ith iteration. Note that Tnormaliter=i is the threshold values for the difference Cilengitide in the estimated surface normal vectors in the ith iteration.

Find corresponding points of p1��niter=11. pj2 is the corresponding point of pi1 if��(pi1;pj2)��Tnormaliter=i��(pi1;pj2)��Tcciter=iwhere Tcciter=i is the threshold for the difference in the changes of geometric curvature between the corresponding points.Calculate the approximate transformation, Triter=i, and transform C1. Rotate the normal vectors of all points of C1 as well.

The source block is shape compensated (filtered) to look like the

The source block is shape compensated (filtered) to look like the target block. The frames are further divided into blocks of 16 �� 16 pixel size. We then define the pattern with size of 3 �� 3 with its center as the working pixel on the source block. Thus, there are 16 �� 16 moving patterns in each scanned block. Patterns of the same kind are grouped together as pattern group. Therefore there are at most 512 pattern groups. We need to select a filter for each source block. The filters for selection are candidates. Every pattern in the block is a voter and a pattern group is a voter group. Thus, there are 16 �� 16 voters of at most 512 voter types for every block. We can prepare the filter-pattern relation table off-line by filtering every type of pattern. One typical table composed of 256 filters is shown in Table 1.

Table 1.Filter-pattern relation table.We then define the target pixel on the target block by the corresponding pixel with the same location of the center of the pattern (voter) on the source block. For each pattern (voter), the filtered result is either consistent with the target pixel or not. The optimal filter is the filter causing the least inconsistent results. In other words, the candidate on selection is the candidate accepted by the most voters. The optimal filter (winner) can be selected pattern (voter) by pattern (voter) or group by group. Group is short for pattern (voter) group. Selection by group is most advantageous in the situation where the voters are much more than the groups and is occurred during the off-line selection in the next section.

The pattern group associated with the target value is called pattern-target relation or pattern-target occurrence table. One realization of this relation is shown in Table 2.Table 2.Pattern-target occurrence table.In practice, we first scan the Anacetrapib source and target blocks to have Table 2 (pattern-target occurrence table). Then, we build a pattern-filter conflict table from Table 1 (the off-line prepared pattern-filter relation table) and Table 2 (pattern-target occurrence table). Using this table, the least inconsistent filter is obtained. One example of the pattern-filter conflict table deduced from Table 1 and Table 2 is shown in Table 3.Table 3.Pattern-filter conflict table.We summarize the processing procedures as follows:Step 0.

Off-line preparing the filter collection (explained in next section) and Table 1 (Filter-pattern relation) table.Step 1. Building Table 2 (Pattern-target occurrence table) in a single scan of the corresponding source and target blocks.Step 2. Building Table 3 (Filter-pattern conflict table) from Table 1 and Table 2 by checking the target value in Table 2 with the relation value in Table 1.Step 3. Finding the least conflicts filter from Table 3 by summing the column.4.

There are three main techniques to excite an AFM cantilever:

There are three main techniques to excite an AFM cantilever: though thermally, acoustically and magnetically. In a liquid environment the response of the cantilever strongly depends on the excitation technique. In the case thermal excitation [7, 8], the cantilever response or thermal noise is the result of random collisions from the Brownian motion of the surrounding fluid selleck inhibitor molecules. In this technique, the cantilever is excited directly and consequently a smooth Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries vibration response, related only to the properties of the cantilever and the fluid, is observed. In the magnetic excitation technique [9], a microcantilever magnetized either by attaching a magnetic particle [10] or coating Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries with a magnetic material [11] is excited by an external magnetic field.

This is another direct excitation method providing a Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries smooth vibration response.

In comparison, the acoustic technique [4] is not a direct method. In this technique, the cantilever is excited through movement of its base by a piezoelectric Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries actuator. The actuator is usually placed directly under the cantilever chip in the tip holder used in air Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries or vacuum, while it is usually located away from the cantilever Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries base in the fluid cell which is used for liquid media. As will be explained in detail later, the response of the cantilever to Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries acoustic excitation, in a liquid environment, contains many spurious peaks which do not correspond to the natural frequencies of the cantilever and are rather Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries related to the design of the fluid cell.

It should also Brefeldin_A be noted that there are some other techniques [12, 13] for excitation of the AFM cantilever, which are not as common as the techniques discussed AV-951 above.

Although the thermal and magnetic driving techniques produce smoother cantilever responses, they have some drawbacks which make working with acoustic excitation desirable. Firstly, these techniques require additional sellectchem hardware such as a signal conditioner, a data acquisition system, special cantilevers, and a magnetic field system making these techniques more complex and costly. Secondly, in the magnetic technique, the fluid is heated by the electromagnetic field and the magnetic coating changes the vibrational properties and bending angle of the cantilever.

For these reasons, many studies have been aimed at understanding and removing the redundant peaks in the response of the cantilever no to acoustic excitation.Putman et al. [4], who were the pioneers in introducing tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid media, were the first faced with these extra frequency peaks. They realized that any changes in the liquid cell system, such as changing its geometry, its material, the working liquid, and more importantly the amount of liquid, affect the positions and amplitudes of the resonances. Schaffer et al.

Traditional NMR spectroscopy operates at Larmor frequencies ��0/2

Traditional NMR spectroscopy operates at Larmor frequencies ��0/2�� neither = �� B0 > 100 MHz yielding �� < 8 ��m for aluminum. This shielding prevents signals from being observed through the 75 ��m thick aluminum layer incorporated into the tote material.A useful food spoilage detector Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries must have Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries four essential design features. It should be noninvasive, portable, accept a variety of sample geometries, and probe both metal and non-metal containers. These features are provided by a unilateral NMR circuit, or single-sided coil, which is an NMR tank circuit with a planar inductor that can non-invasively probe a wide range of sample geometries [9]. Interfacing this coil with a light weight permanent magnet that produces a small static magnetic field ultimately leads to increased metal transparency.

The decreased field strength leads to a lower Larmor frequency ��0/2�� �� 5 MHz that concomitantly increases the skin depth in aluminum to �� �� 40 ��m thus providing access Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries to the study of the contents of non-ferrous, metal-lined containers. In practice, a portable single sided coil and magnet system could be placed flush with a 1,000 L industrial tomato tote to non-invasively provide spoilage information about the contents. Small, portable single sided coil and magnet systems are commercially available with the most well-known example being the NMR Mobile Universal Surface Explorer, developed at RWTH-Aachen [10].The ultimate goal of this work was to determine if NMR spectroscopy is sensitive to tomato paste spoilage and to record the NMR signal from tomato paste in industrial, non-ferrous, metal-lined 1,000 L totes.

To this end, tomato paste NMR relaxation parameters were monitored in small 100 mL glass containers using a customized low magnetic Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries field NMR spectrometer to find a measureable variable that correlates with tomato spoilage. After the spoilage dependent NMR parameter was determined in non-metal containers, it was confirmed that it can be measured using a sample in a non-ferrous, metal-lined tote using a single sided coil/magnet system. As NMR experiments in metal containers are rarely reported in the literature, effort is spent in the next section describing the ��0/2�� = 4 MHz electromagnet based and the ��0/2�� = 5.25 MHz single sided magnet based systems.2.?Materials and MethodsCommercial tomato paste was used as received from The Morning Star Company.

Small format samples were prepared in a clean room by aseptically transferring fresh tomato paste into thirty 100 mL VWR media bottles. The thirty identical samples were separated Drug_discovery into two, separate, fifteen bottle sets. The control group was set aside while the other fifteen bottles were inoculated with a mixed culture of microorganisms that were harvested from a leaking aseptic filler line at the Los Ba ?os, CA, Morning Star Company food packing facility. Immediately after preparation, the thirty samples were cooled to T < 5 ��C and stored in a refrigerator.