Information presented herein can be useful during forensic invest

Information presented herein can be useful during forensic investigations involving this fly species.”
“Eagle syndrome is characterized by the sensation of a foreign body in the throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and craniofacial or cervical pain due to an elongated styloid learn more process. Some reports have indicated that an elongated styloid process is one of the causes of carotid artery dissection (CAD). This is the first report describing the anesthetic management of Eagle syndrome complicated by CAD. Careful intratracheal intubation and neurological monitoring are important to prevent intraoperative

neurologic deficits. In addition, attention must be paid to postoperative complications such as airway obstruction.”
“Congenital factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a severe bleeding disorder. We previously identified an Arg260Cys missense mutation and an exon-IV deletion in patients’ A subunit genes, F13A. To characterize the molecular/cellular basis of this disease, we expressed a wild type and these mutant A subunits in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. The mutant proteins were expressed less efficiently than the wild type. These mutants gradually decreased inside BHK cells, whereas the wild type remained largely unchanged. The decline/decrease in these mutants was completely

blocked/restored by a potent proteasome inhibitor, MG-132. This was Proteases inhibitor consistent with the prediction by molecular modelling that the mutant molecules would lose the native structure of wild-type molecule, leading to their instability and degeneration and ultimately to degradation. These mutants might have significantly altered conformations, resulting in the rapid degradation by the proteasome inside the synthesizing cells, and ultimately leading to FXIII deficiency.”
“Two new species of

sphenophyllalean cones, Bowmanites LY3039478 ic50 myriophyllus sp. nov. and Bowmanites priveticensis sp. nov., from the Radnice Basin of the Czech Republic are proposed. The most characteristic feature is the sporangiophore having lanceolate expansions bearing sporangia. Strobili were studied morphologically, including cuticle analysis and examination of in situ spores. Both new species yielded monolete spores of the Laevigatosporites/Latosporites-type. A review is given of the dispersed and in situ Laevigatosporites/Latosporites spores of sphenopsid origin and their parent plants are compared. A new species of the genus Sphenophyllum Brongniart, Sphenophyllum priveticense sp. nov. is proposed and the diagnosis of Sphenophyllum myriophyllum Crepin is emended. Some B. myriophyllus cones are born on vegetative axes with leaves of the Sphenophyllum myriophyllum-type and some B. priveticensis cones are connected with stems and leaves of S. priveticense. Epidermal structures of the leaves (hook-like structures at the end of lobes of leaves) of both Sphenophyllum species could enable plants to climb.

Uncertainty about surgery or rehabilitation leads to delayed reco

Uncertainty about surgery or rehabilitation leads to delayed recovery. A surgical option process (SOP) was developed to permit patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal find more disorders to enter FR,

make a final determination halfway through treatment, and return to complete rehabilitation after surgery, if surgery was elected. PURPOSE: This study assessed the frequency with which an FR program can resolve an uncertain surgical option. It also assessed program completion rate and 1-year post-program outcomes for subgroups that decline surgery, request and receive surgery, or request surgery but are denied by surgeon or insurance carrier. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of a consecutive cohort. PATIENT SAMPLE: A cohort of 44 consecutively treated chronic disabling occupational

musculoskeletal disorder patients were admitted to an FR program and identified as candidates for a surgical procedure but were either ambivalent about undergoing surgery, had a difference of opinion by two or more surgeons, or were denied a surgical request by an insurance carrier. Patients attended half (10 full day visits) of an FR program before making their own final determination to pursue a request or decline surgery. OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were assessed on surgical requests and whether surgery was ultimately performed, program completion status after the surgical determination, demographic variables, and 1-year outcomes on work status, additional surgery, and other health utilization measures. C59 wnt Batimastat price METHODS: Patients became part of the SOP on program entry and were included in the study if they participated in a surgical-decision interview halfway through the program. Those who elected to decline surgery (DS) completed the program without delay, but those requesting surgery were placed on hold from the program while consultation and preauthorization steps

took place. Those requesting surgery, but denied (RSD), and those undergoing surgery (US) were given the opportunity to complete FR following postoperative physical therapy or resolution of the surgical re-evaluation process. RESULTS: There were 32 DS patients (73%), indicating that a large majority of patients declined the surgery that was still being considered when offered participation in the SOP. Of the 12 patients wanting a surgery, there were four US patients who received surgery previously denied (9% of cohort), and eight RSD patients (18% of cohort). Patients from the DS group completed the FR program at an 88% rate, as did 75% of US patients. However, despite an opportunity to re-enter and complete rehab, only 50% of RSD patients completed the FR option. Overall, patients who persistently sought surgery, contrary to the recommendations of a surgeon, had poorer outcomes.


“The present study was conducted in which various physicoc


“The present study was conducted in which various physicochemical properties and acrylamide content in chips of a transgenic potato and the untransformed control, using the cultivar Snowden, during storage at 12 degrees C and 5 degrees C were characterized. The dry matter from the untransformed potato contained high amylose content during the various storage periods

whereas significantly (p <= 0.05) higher phosphorus content was observed in the transgenic potato, before and after storage. Resistant starch was significantly (p <= 0.05) higher in the transgenic potato before and after storage for 14 days at 12 degrees C. Chips made from the transgenic tubers stored at 5 degrees C had significantly lower acrylamide content (i.e., 59-69% less) as compared to those from the untransformed controls. A high positive correlation (p <= 0.05) between acrylamide and glucose, fructose and reducing sugars and a lower buy Buparlisib correlation with sucrose was observed. High negative correlation (p <= 0.05) between chip score and acrylamide was also observed. The present study shows that overexpression of Arabidopsis pyruvate decarboxylase in transgenic Snowden had increased

resistant starch and higher dry matter contents of phosphorus, and decreased acrylamide levels in potato chips made from these potatoes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Quantitative biological assessment protocols are needed for monitoring river status and evaluating river rehabilitation P5091 efforts. We conducted a standardized macroinvertebrate survey at 100 sites on 38 nonwadeable rivers in Wisconsin to construct, test, and apply an index of biotic integrity (IBI) intended to be such a bioassessment tool. We assigned independent samples to IBI development (n = 75) and IBI validation (n = 25) data sets. We placed Hester-Dendy artificial substrates at the sites for 6 wk and processed the samples of colonizing CH5424802 macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a 500-target

subsampling procedure plus a large-rare taxon search. Independent of the biota, we assigned an environmental disturbance score to each site based upon water chemistry, land cover, flow modification, and point-source pollution. Ten metrics that represent macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, composition, and function constitute the IBI: the number of taxa in: 1) Insecta or 2) Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT); % individuals that were: 3) Insecta, 4) intolerant EPT, 5) tolerant chironomids, 6) gatherers, 7) scrapers, or from 8) the dominant 3 taxa; 9) the mean pollution tolerance value; and 10) the number of unique ecological functional trait niches. Analyses on both the validation subset of sites and all sites inclusive confirmed that least-disturbed sites had the highest IBI scores, severely disturbed sites had the lowest scores, and moderately disturbed sites had intermediate scores.

To examine whether stocking is implemented within the available c

To examine whether stocking is implemented within the available carrying capacity, we assessed the feeding relationships among fishes, based on the stomach contents of fishes collected off the coast of Fukushima, Japan. Similarity in diet suggested that 10 species, particularly the poacher Occella iburia and nibe croaker Nibea mitsukurii were potential competitors of P. olivaceus juveniles for food. Large inter-annual variability in the abundance of these competitors was observed, suggesting variability in their consumption of mysids. The predominant mysid Orientomysis mitsukurii was abundant every year,

and growth rates of wild P. olivaceus, estimated from otolith microstructure, were mostly high (>1 mm d(-1)), even Selonsertib inhibitor in the year when wild P. olivaceus were highly abundant. In our statistical model, abundance of mysids and consumption of mysids by fishes significantly affected the growth rates of wild P. olivaceus but only accounted for a small proportion (i.e. explained 2.2 and 2.4% of variance, respectively) of the total compared

to the body size of juveniles (30.0%) and bottom water temperature (4.5%). These results suggest that the productivity of mysids is usually high enough to support the production of mysid consumers, but exceptionally high abundances of wild P. olivaceus or other competitors can reduce the available carrying capacity. In such a situation, stocking should be restricted so as not to reduce productivity of wild fishes.”
“Background Adherence to therapy is a key to achieving good clinical outcomes. Promoting GSK3235025 price medication adherence requires a range of strategies that primarily focus on fostering behavioral change. Community pharmacists are well placed

to deliver adherence support to patients. Aim To investigate community pharmacists’ activities in supporting patient medication adherence in their AC220 Angiogenesis inhibitor practice; and to assess pharmacists’ attitudes and barriers to adherence support. Method A sample of 500 pharmacies was randomly selected from a list of community pharmacies in the state of New South Wales (Australia) and mailed a questionnaire focusing on provision of adherence support, pharmacists’ attitudes, and barriers to adherence support. Two follow-up reminders were sent to non-responding pharmacies after 2 and 6 weeks. Result A response rate of 27.6 % was achieved (n = 126), consistent with recent research studies. For less than half (42 %) of prescriptions dispensed, pharmacists reported providing strategies to identify non-adherent patients. Providing dose administration aids was the most common method to support adherence used by pharmacists (95 %). Most (98 %) agreed that it was their role to promote patients’ adherence. However 64 and 52 % reported that patients’ time pressures and poor health literacy, respectively, were the main barriers to provision of adherence support. Around 25 % of respondents reported that they had received training programs on providing medication adherence support.

Lysozyme

Lysozyme find more activity before ivermectin treatment reached 2.77 mL/L on average, and a significant 2-fold increase to 6.85 mg/L was

reported on day 75.”
“Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an initial post-operative lactate level is a predictor of mortality, need for peritoneal dialysis (PD), duration of intubation or length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) in children undergoing cardiac surgery.\n\nMethod: A retrospective, observational follow-up study was conducted in 206 children undergoing cardiac surgery from 2006 to 2007. Multivariate logistics regression analyses were performed to determine whether the lactate level was an independent risk factor. The lactate concentration at arrival in the

ICU, outcome and risk factors (patient demographics, surgical complexity, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and inotropic score) were obtained from the electronic patient data management program and medical records.\n\nResult: The median see more (interquartile range) lactate level was 1.9 mmol/ l (1.3-2.7) in children immediately after cardiac surgery and a mortality of 3.9%. Eight percent of the children had a lactate level higher than 4.5 mmol/l. An increased lactate level >= 4.5 mmol/l resulted in an odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of 8.4 (1.5-46.1) for mortality and an odds ratio of 16.9 (2.7-106.8) for PD after adjusting for Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery 1. Because of the low number of deaths, limited confounder analysis was performed. Duration of intubation and LOS in the ICU were not associated with the initial lactate level when adjusting for confounders.\n\nConclusion: The initial post-operative lactate level was a predictor of mortality and need for PD in children undergoing surgery for congenital

heart disease.”
“Enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) is a new option for the clinical management of MPS I. However, no detailed data are available on the structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the urine and plasma of patients before ERT and during treatment regimens. Before ERT and over a two-week period buy AZD9291 of enzyme infusion, GAGs in urine and plasma were analyzed in two patients with the Hurler-Scheie form of MPS I subjected to ERT for 6 years. In both patients before ERT, high amounts of a GAG were found in the urine, composed in particular of a high molecular mass polymer (similar to 13,000-13,500) consisting of similar to 75-78% iduronic acid and rich in 4-sulfated disaccharides (delta Di4s) and attributable to DS. Furthermore, a high amount of this GAG was directly detected in the blood. Plasma GAGs in MPS I patients subjected to ERT were found to be comparable to those of normal subjects with the absence of heparan sulfate and of DS.

Response was a >= 4-fold rise in bactericidal titre to a titre

Response was a >= 4-fold rise in bactericidal titre to a titre of >= 8.\n\nResults Geometric mean bactericidal titres (GMTs), with 95% CI, after dose 3: adults: 27 (14-52), 5 (3-11), and 7 (3-15) at 1, 10, and 22 months; school children: 18 (13-25) and 4 (3-6) at 1 and 4 months; infants: 27 (19-39) and 2 (2-3) at 1 and 7 months. The titre achieved after priming significantly influenced persistence.

Toddler non-responder GMTs were 4 (3-5) and 1 (1-1) at 1 and 11 months after dose 3 and 69 (46-106) 1 month after dose 4. Responder GMTs were 24 (19-30) and 3 (2-4) at 1 and 17 months after dose 3 and 259 (184-363) 1 month after dose 4. Dose 4 had no safety concerns.\n\nConclusions Immune HSP990 manufacturer response to MeNZB was most sustained in adults. In infants, bactericidal titres decayed almost to baseline by 7 months after dose 3. Toddlers showed marked immune response following

a fourth dose suggesting memory. Persisting antibody is likely to be necessary for ongoing protection, as seen with serogroup C meningococci.”
“A new genus of Aeshnidae, Huncoaeshna n. gen., based on Huncoaeshna corrugata n. gen., n. sp., is erected from Laguna del Hunco (Ypresian) in Patagonia Argentina. The specimen presents a special kind of preservation with the middle part of the wing wrinkled. The presence of only two fossil specimens of Aeshnidae in South America is surely due to the lack of paleontomologists and collections of fossil insects in the subcontinent.”
“Introduction. – Pulmonary epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (PEH) is a rare vascular tumour of intermediate malignancy that predominantly affects women.\n\nClinical AZ 628 concentration case reports. – We report three cases of PEH. Though all three diagnoses were confirmed by surgical biopsy, it is notable that, in one case, a tracheal biopsy by flexible bronchoscopy was contributory. Two patients had undergone positron emission tomography, which showed the lesions to be well established. The three cases show that the evolution of this pathology can be very varied. In the first case, the disease was multifocal and

needed to be treated with several pulmonary resections. In the second case no recurrence has been observed after surgery; in the third case the patient died following a haemothorax.\n\nConclusion. – The discovery of a PEH is usually fortuitous. The diagnosis is confirmed by immuno-chemical analysis of a lung biopsy. No standard treatment PF00299804 has been validated and no treatment is necessary if the disease is asymptomatic. If there is only one nodule, surgery is the treatment of choice. The prognosis is variable. Usually the evolution is slow except when the disease is complicated by haemoptysis, pleural effusion, haemothorax, mediastinal lymphadenopathy or hepatic spread. (C) 2010 SPLF Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“In the present study, Frizzled-2 (Fz2), a receptor of the Wnt ligand, was investigated as a potential target of molecular therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Analysis of RNA by quantitative real-time

reverse transcr

Analysis of RNA by quantitative real-time

reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed that the bacterial load was decreased in these mutant flies compared to wild-type infected control flies. Seven of these genes (san, Cht11, Uck2, Echs1, whd, Ccdc58, and Apop1) encoded proteins that had mitochondrial functions or could be associated with proteins with mitochondrial functions. Treatment of THP-1 cells with double-stranded RNA to silence the human UCK2 gene indicates that the disruption of the uridine-cytidine kinase affects E. chaffeensis replication in human macrophages. Experiments with cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC), a CTP synthetase inhibitor and cytosine, suggest that the nucleotide salvage pathway is essential for E. chaffeensis replication and that it may be important for the provision of CTP, uridine, and AZD6094 cytidine nucleotides.”
“Objective: To identify genetic

risk factors for the progression of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) to reflux nephropathy, we examined polymorphisms of multiple cytokine genes among VUR patients with or without renal scarring.\n\nMethods: A total of 238 VUR patients aged between 1 and 18 years with (n = 113) or without renal scarring (n = 125) were included. The presence of renal scarring was demonstrated by renal parenchymal examination using Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinate scintigraphy. Sera of the patients were examined for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, -308), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta 1, +869, +915), interleukin-6

(IL-6, -174), Pexidartinib order interleukin-10 (IL-10, -1082, -819, -592) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma, +874) gene polymorphisms using the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer method.\n\nResults: Among patients with renal scarring, frequencies for the T/T G/C and C/C G/C genotypes of TGF-beta 1 gene (p = 0.003), GCC/GCC genotype of IL-10 gene (p = 0.015), GC phenotype of IL-6 gene (p = 0.001) and T/T genotype of IFN-gamma gene (p = 0.001) were higher Epigenetics inhibitor compared to patients without renal scarring. Regarding the TNF-alpha gene, among patients with low grade VUR only, the G/G genotype was associated with an increased risk.\n\nConclusions: Certain genotypes of cytokine gene polymorphisms seem to be associated with an increased or decreased susceptibility to reflux nephropathy, which may explain why only a proportion of VUR patients progress to reflux nephropathy. This information may aid in prediction of prognosis and implementing more aggressive management strategies at earlier stages. Further immunogenetic studies may identify novel targets for the management and prevention of the condition. (C) 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

These data confirm and extend our understanding of the significan

These data confirm and extend our understanding of the significance of the M2 protein for infectious virus particle assembly.”
“We report the case of a patient who developed allergic contact hand dermatitis while receiving infliximab) infusions for psoriasis and psoriatic LDK378 arthritis. Patch testing showed multiple positive allergens. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful patch testing in a patient receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blockade therapy. TNF-alpha blockers do not necessarily suppress allergic contact hypersensitivity and are not an absolute contraindication to patch testing.”
“Context:

Hypertrophic scarring following surgical procedures, trauma and especially burns can lead to severe Selleck GSK923295 functional and cosmetic impairment, causing a decrease in the quality of life. Although a wide choice of treatments is offered, few therapeutic methods are universally accepted because of their side effects.\n\nObjective: The effects of the essential

oil (EO) extracted from rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae) in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) are investigated for the first time.\n\nMaterials and methods: Chemical composition of hydrodistilled EO obtained from rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of EO on cell viability, apoptosis rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-3 in HSFs were investigated.\n\nResults:

The experimental results showed that EO significantly inhibited cell viability, elicited morphological changes and induced apoptosis in HSFs. EO also evidently increased the loss of MMP, the levels of LDH release and cellular ROS production, and the activity of caspase-3.\n\nDiscussion and conclusion: EO-induced apoptosis was at least partially carried out via destruction of the intracellular antioxidant system and elicitation of excessive ROS accumulation in HSFs, which impaired mitochondrial membranes and elicited caspase-3 activation. EO could be an effective cure for human hypertrophic scar.”
“Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the CX-6258 order impact of point spread function (PSF) reconstruction on quantitative values and diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT for nodal staging in non-small cell lung cancer.\n\nPatients and Methods: Fifty-eight consecutive PET/CT examinations were reconstructed with both ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and PSF algorithms. Two readers independently performed a randomized blinded review of PET/CT examinations and gave a nodal status (N0, N1, N2, or N3) to each PET data set. When discordant, a consensus was reached with a third reader.

Results: After all 3 isometric contractions, there was consid

\n\nResults: After all 3 isometric contractions, there was considerable variability between subjects in the pain response. Based on the changes in experimental pain, subjects were divided into 3 groups (increase, decrease, no change in pain). Multiple regression

analysis revealed that age, baseline experimental pain, and change in fibromyalgia pain intensity were significant predictors of the experimental pain response after the isometric contractions.\n\nConclusions: We identified subgroups of women with fibromyalgia based on how they perceived pain after isometric contractions. The greatest pain relief for women with fibromyalgia occurred at a younger age and in women with the greatest experimental pain before exercise. Additionally, we established a link between experimental and clinical pain relief after the performance of isometric contractions.”
“In her 2003 article in the British Medical Ilomastat supplier Journal, Ruth Macklin provocatively declared dignity to be a useless concept: either a vague restatement of other more precise values, such as autonomy or respect for persons, Ispinesib datasheet or an empty slogan. A recent response to Macklin has challenged this claim. Doris Schroeder attempts to rescue dignity by positing four distinct concepts that fall under the one umbrella

term. She argues that much of the confusion surrounding dignity is due to the lack of disambiguation among these four concepts, but that once we understand the different values in question dignity becomes a powerful tool in the fields of human rights and bioethics. It is the goal of this paper to build upon Schroeder’s insights by reconnecting the multiple strands of dignity she identifies. It will be argued that the usefulness of dignity as a guiding principle in medical ethics can be much improved by identifying the single conceptual link that ties together the various values flying under its banner. That conceptual link is provided by understanding dignity as Selleckchem Wnt inhibitor the capacity to live

by one’s standards and principles.”
“Genetic diversity was studied in 30 lentil genotypes (including 15 hybrids, 8 mutants and 7 exotic accessions) originating from Pakistan, Argentina and ICARDA (Syria) by using Metroglyph analysis. The objectives were to classify the lentil germplasm into distinct groups and to identify the most desirable genotype(s) for hybridization programme for the evolution of high yielding varieties. A desirability index was constructed to assess the worth of a particular genotype for different traits. Metroglyph analysis distributed the genotypes into 10 distinct groups. Maximum mean index score was observed for group-V followed by group-VI and group-VII. Mean index score of exotic accessions (14.3) was found greater than those of hybrids (13.9) and mutants (13.8).

We applied protein-complex purification strategies and identified

We applied protein-complex purification strategies and identified PRAME as a substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin2-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. PRAME can be recruited to DNA in vitro, and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PRAME is specifically enriched at transcriptionally active promoters that are also bound by NFY and at enhancers. Our results are consistent with

a role for the PRAME ubiquitin ligase complex in NFY-mediated transcriptional regulation. The EMBO Journal (2011) 30, 3786-3798. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2011.262; Published online 5 August 2011″
“BACKGROUND. Active surveillance followed by selective treatment for men who have evidence of disease progression may be an option for select patients with early-stage prostate cancer. In this article, the authors report their experience in a contemporary cohort of men with prostate cancer who CA3 Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor were managed with active surveillance.\n\nMETHODS. All men who were managed initially with active surveillance were identified through the authors’ institutional database. Selection criteria for active surveillance included: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng/mL, biopsy Gleason sum <= 6 with no pattern 4 or 5, cancer involvement of <33% of biopsy cores, and clinical stage T1/T2a tumor.

Patients were followed with PSA measurements and digital rectal examination every 3 to 6 months and with transrectal ultrasound at 6- to 12-month intervals. Beginning in 2003, selleck chemical patients also underwent repeat prostate biopsy at 12 to 24 months. The primary outcome measured was active treatment. Evidence of disease progression, defined as an increase in rebiopsy Gleason sum or significant PSA velocity changes (>0.75

ng/mL per year), was a secondary outcome. Chi-square and log-rank tests were used to compare groups. The association between clinical characteristics and receipt of active treatment was analyzed by using Cox proportional hazards regression.\n\nRESULTS. Three hundred twenty-one men (mean age [+/- standard deviation]: 63.4 +/- 8.5 years) selected active surveillance as their initial management. The overall median follow-up was 3.6 years (range, 1-17 years). VX-809 mouse The initial mean PSA level was 6.5 +/- 3.9 ng/mL. One hundred twenty men (37%) met at least I criterion for progression. Overall, 38% of men had higher grade on repeat biopsy, and 26% of men had a PSA velocity >0.75 ng/mL per year. Seventy-eight men (24%) received secondary treatment at a median 3 years (range, 1-17 years) after diagnosis. Approximately 13% of patients with no disease progression elected to obtain treatment. PSA density at diagnosis and rise in Gleason score on repeat biopsy were associated significantly with receipt of secondary treatment. The disease-specific survival rate was 100%.\n\nCONCLUSIONS.