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127. Facklam R: What happened to the streptococci: overview of taxonomic and nomenclature changes. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002, 15:613–630.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions AS and RR prepared the AZD5582 datasheet review data, collected the related references, analyzed the studied data and prior studies. AS, RR, and FAB drafted the review and prepared the review structure. all authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Intracranial metastases represent the most common brain tumors, occurring in 25-50% of all cancer patients (based on clinical studies, hospital records and autopsy series) [1, 2]. Given the high rate of cancer patients who will metastasize to the brain during the course of their disease, brain metastases (BMs) constitute a major health care problem. As new and more effective therapies for treating primary tumors lengthen patient survival and the availability of enhanced cerebral imaging techniques favors
the detection of small and asymptomatic brain lesions, the incidence of BMs is expected to increase. In adults, lung cancer is the main cause of BMs (50-60%), followed by breast cancer (15-20%)
and melanoma (5-10%) respectively, while tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and renal cell carcinomas are less common origins of metastases LY294002 to the brain . In fewer Mocetinostat mw cases, intracranial involvement is the first and unique manifestation of cancer as for patients with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site . In cancer patients who will develop BMs median time to brain recurrence is about 12 months  and, without treatment, median survival from detection of BMs rarely exceeds 1 month . Neverthless, survival is influenced by several prognostic factors: high Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), younger age (< 65 years), good control of primary tumor and absence of extracranial disease are among factors predicting for better survival [6, 7]. Other positive prognostic factors include presence of a brain metastasis, favorable tumor histology, response to steroid treatment and no impairment of neurocognitive functions [7, 8]. Using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) derived from a database of several Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials, Gaspar et al. identified three prognostic categories of patients with a significant inter-group variability of survival (from 7.1 months for RPA class I to 2.3 months for class III patients) . Over the past few decades, whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been considered the standard treatment for brain metastases .