“Background: The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is used for assessing nicotine dependence. A shorter test derived from the FTND used for the general population is the Heavy Smoking Index (HSI) (six questions vs. two). The objective of this study is to compare the validity of the HSI versus the FTND.\n\nMethods: A survey of tobacco use in the general population was carried out in the northern Spanish region of Galicia using both the FTND and the HSI to study a representative sample of 1655 daily smokers. The HSI was compared with the FTND, considered the gold standard. Measures of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated. Concordance
XMU-MP-1 between the tests was also established (Cohen’s kappa).\n\nResults: Cohen’s kappa showed good agreement between measures (Kappa = 0.7); specificity values were also high (Sp = 96.2%). Sensitivity analysis
in females (Se = 62.3%) did not show good agreement.\n\nConclusions: The HSI can be used as a reasonably good screening test in order to identify daily smokers with high nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, for populations or subpopulations having low nicotine dependence, such as women, the FTND is more reliable.”
“In this study, zinc-contaminated soils were chosen as a candidate material for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from hot coal-derived gas. Laboratory www.selleckchem.com/products/mln-4924.html experiments showed that H2S was decreased to less than 10 ppm when the zinc-contaminated soils were reacted with H2S. The best removal temperature of H2S was found to be at 550A degrees C in the operating conditions. In addition to zinc species, free iron oxides in contaminated soils also performed an active species to react with H2S and enhanced the sulfur capacity. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/liproxstatin-1.html Through the XPS analysis, iron sulfide (FeS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) were the major products after removal experiments. Regeneration experimental results indicated that
the zinc-contaminated soils can be regenerated by pass diluted air and thus be reused on the removal of H2S for many times.”
“Background: While single shot femoral nerve blocks and indwelling femoral nerve catheters provide significant pen-operative analgesia, there are small but serious risks of neurovascular complications. We aimed to determine the incidence and characterise the nature of neural complications arising from femoral nerve blocks performed for knee surgery.\n\nMethods: One thousand eight hundred and two patients receiving a femoral nerve block for knee surgery during the study period were screened. Patients with possible neurological symptoms were evaluated with a detailed physical examination and self-report questionnaires. Also measures of depression, anxiety and tension/stress were collected.\n\nResults: In the patients screened, an incidence of 1.94% was found. Of the 24 patients available for testing, 4 had bilateral symptoms following bilateral nerve blocks.