Tin treatment of mice at a later age resulted in milder disease,

Tin treatment of mice at a later age resulted in milder disease, with evidence of peripheral nerve remyelination and focal fur depigmentation; surviving weak mice had persistent expression of the recombined transgene in the CNS, suggesting that the DA subgenomic segment can cause cellular dysfunction but not death, possibly similar to the situation seen during DA virus persistence. These studies demonstrate that DA RNA or a DA protein(s)

is toxic to myelin-synthesizing cells. This Cre/loxP transgenic system allows for spatially and temporally controlled expression of the viral transgene and is valuable for clarifying non-immune (and immune) mechanisms of demyelination induced by TMEV as well as other viruses.”
“Epidemiological studies suggest a link between pesticide exposure

Necrostatin-1 cost and an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although studies have been unable to clearly identify specific pesticides that contribute to PD, a few human studies have reported higher levels of the organochlorine pesticides dieldrin and DDE (a metabolite of DDT) in post-mortem PD brains. Previously, we found that exposure of mice to dieldrin caused perturbations in the nigrostriatal dopamine system consistent with those seen in PD. Given the concern www.selleckchem.com/products/lcl161.html over the environmental persistence and reintroduction of DDT for the control of malaria-carrying mosquitoes and other pests, we sought to determine whether DDT and its two major metabolites, DDD and DDE, could damage the dopamine system. In vitro analyses in mouse synaptosomes and vesicles demonstrated that DDT and its metabolites inhibit the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2). However, exposure of mice to either DDT or DDE failed to show evidence of nigrostriatal damage or behavioral abnormalities in JNJ-64619178 cost any of the measures examined. Thus, we report that in vitro effects of DDT and its metabolites on components

of the dopamine system do not translate into neurotoxicological outcomes in orally exposed mice and DDT appears to have less dopamine toxicity when compared to dieldrin. These data suggest elevated DDE levels in PD patients may represent a measure of general pesticide exposure and that other pesticides may be responsible for the association between pesticide exposure and PD. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes differ broadly in transduction efficacies and tissue tropisms and thus hold enormous potential as vectors for human gene therapy. In reality, however, their use in patients is restricted by prevalent anti-AAV immunity or by their inadequate performance in specific targets, exemplified by the AAV type 2 (AAV-2) prototype in the liver.

However, there are distinct differences between behavioral subtyp

However, there are distinct differences between behavioral subtypes in their neurochemical modulation.

This

review brings new light to the classical view of the mechanisms that inhibit behavior, in particular suggesting a far more prominent role for the STN, a structure that is usually omitted from conventional behavioral-inhibition networks. The OF-DMStr-STN circuitry may SC75741 supplier form the basis of a control network that defines behavioral inhibition and that acts to suppress or countermand many forms of inappropriate or maladaptive behavior. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We evaluated early postoperative complications and 3-month mortality after radical cystectomy using a standardized method to report complications.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively collected data on all 358 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy for nonmetastatic bladder transitional cell carcinoma Defactinib cell line at a tertiary academic referral center from January 2002 to December 2006. The Martin criteria were used to report complications, which were graded according to a 5-grade modification of the Clavien system.

Results: A total of 231 complications

occurred in 174 patients (49%), of which 13% were grades 3 to 5. The 3-month mortality rate was 3%. After evaluating the whole patient cohort American Society of Anesthesiologists score was the only covariate significantly associated with grade 3 to 5 complications on univariate analysis. Subgroup analysis limited to patients with an orthotopic ileal neobladder showed that female gender (HR 0.204, p = 0.017) and American

Society of Anesthesiologists score (HR 2.851, p = 0.013) were independent predictors of grade 3 to 5 complications on multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: When applying a standardized methodology to report early morbidity, about 50% of patients undergoing radical cystectomy had complications within 3 months of surgery. Although most complications were minor, about 13% of patients experienced grade 3 to 5 events, resulting EPZ015666 supplier in a 3-month mortality rate of 3%. American Society of Anesthesiologists score was significantly associated with major complications, while on subgroup analysis in patients who received an orthotopic ileal neobladder female gender was also an independent predictor of major complications.”
“This theoretical proposal presents a revised framework for the role of reward in anorexia nervosa (AN). AN is associated with a fear of weight gain and refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight. Up to 80% of patients engage in excessive exercise, in addition to self-starvation, to reduce their body weight. Anhedonia is the reduced ability to experience reward and is considered a feature of AN. Reward has been linked to reduced food intake and excessive exercise.

cava regulated the expression and activity of gamma-secretase and

cava regulated the expression and activity of gamma-secretase and alpha-secretase, leading to a reduction in A beta

production by the stable cells. Our data indicate that E. cava is a novel natural-product candidate for AD treatment, although further in vivo studies are needed. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Enveloped double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) bacterial virus Pseudomonas phage phi 6 has been developed into an advanced assembly system where purified virion proteins and genome segments self-assemble into infectious viral particles, inferring the assembly pathway. The most intriguing step is the membrane assembly occurring inside the bacterial cell. Here, we demonstrate that the middle virion shell, made of protein 8, associates with the expanded viral core particle and the virus-specific

membrane Mdivi1 molecular weight vesicle.”
“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. Considerable evidence suggests that free radical formation and oxidative stress might play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present investigation we evaluated the therapeutic potential of methylparaben (MP) a well known pharmaceutical preservative against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and in a mouse model of PD. At nanomolar concentrations MP (0.01, 0.1 and 1 nM) significantly attenuated the 6-OHDA- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The reactive oxygen species generated by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells was also inhibited by MP in a concentration dependent fashion. Further, intranigral damage

induced by stereotaxically VE821 injecting 6-OHDA in mouse brain was significantly attenuated by MP treatment. MP (1, 10 or 50 mu g/kg, i.p.) prevented apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and significantly improved motor deficits in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. The cognitive impairments as evaluated by passive avoidance and Y-maze task in mice were also attenuated by MP concentration Selleck MK-0518 dependently. Immunohistochemical analysis of substantia nigra in MP treated mice showed significantly higher number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells. Furthermore, MP also suppressed the lipid peroxidation products in 6-OHDA-lesioned mouse brain tissues. Considering the results obtained, the marked neuroprotection exhibited by MP might be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. In conclusion, this study reports the neuroprotective properties of MP in experimental models of PD for the first time and can be developed as a potential therapeutic agent. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“During human adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) infection, an excess of penton base and fiber proteins are produced which form dodecahedral particles composed of 12 pentamers of penton base and 12 trimers of fiber protein. No biological functions have yet been ascribed to Ad3 dodecahedra.


“Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus which has


“Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus which has been Akt inhibitor studied intensively for its role in certain human tumors. It also serves as a model of herpesviral latency because it establishes an immediate, latent infection in human B cells. When EBV infects quiescent, primary B cells it induces their continuous proliferation to yield growth-transformed B-cell lines in vitro. The lytic or productive phase of EBV’s life

cycle is induced by the expression of the viral BZLF1 gene in latently infected cells. The BZLF1 protein is a transactivator, which selectively binds to two classes of distinct DNA sequence motifs. One class is similar to the motifs that are bound by members of the AP-1 transcription factor family to which BZLF1 belongs. The second class, which contains

CpG motifs, is predominant in viral promoters of early lytic genes and is BZLF1′s preferred or exclusive target sequence when methylated. The BZLF1 gene is transiently expressed in newly infected B cells but fails to induce EBV’s lytic cycle, potentially because the virion DNA is unmethylated. Here we report that the lack of 5-methylcytosine residues in CpG sites of virion DNA prevents the expression of essential PSI-7977 lytic genes indispensable for viral DNA amplification during productive infection. This finding indicates that BZLF1 transactivates these promoters in a methylation-dependent fashion and explains how progeny virus synthesis is abrogated in newly infected B cells. Our data also reveal that viral lytic DNA synthesis precludes CpG methylation of virion DNA during EBV’s lytic, productive cycle, which can be overcome by the ectopic expression of a prokaryotic cytosine methyltransferase to yield CpG-methylated virion DNA. Upon infection of B cells, randomly CpG-methylated virion DNA induces high expression of essential lytic genes in contrast to virion DNA free of 5-methylcytosine

residues. ICG-001 cost Our data suggest that unmethylated virion DNA is part of EBV’s strategy to prevent the viral lytic phase in newly infected B cells, allowing it to establish its characteristic latent infection in them.”
“Introduction: The therapeutic potential of the bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical 153Sm-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecanetetramethylenephosphonic acid (1535m-DOTMP) was assessed by measuring its dosage-dependent skeletal uptake at two chelant-to-metal ratios and its source organ residence times at a chelant-to-metal ratio of 1.5:1. A similar agent, 153Sm-labeled ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (153Sm-EDTMP), has been reported to exhibit dosage-limiting skeletal saturation.

Methods: Sm-DOTMP was prepared with tracer activity of 153Sm and sufficient stable, unenriched Sm to simulate different activities.

We used

results from a retrospective study of DA-EPOCH-R

We used

results from a retrospective study of DA-EPOCH-R check details from another center to independently verify the outcomes.

RESULTS

The patients had a median age of 30 years (range, 19 to 52) and a median tumor diameter of 11 cm; 59% were women. During a median of 5 years of follow-up, the event-free survival rate was 93%, and the overall survival rate was 97%. Among the 16 patients who were involved in the retrospective analysis at another center, over a median of 3 years of follow-up, the event-free survival rate was 100%, and no patients received radiotherapy. No late morbidity or cardiac toxic effects were found in any patients. After follow-up ranging from 10 months to 14 years, all but 2 of the 51 patients (4%) who received DA-EPOCH-R alone were in complete remission. The 2 remaining patients received radiotherapy and were disease-free at follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Therapy with DA-EPOCH-R obviated the need for radiotherapy in patients with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00001337.)”
“Nitric

oxide (NO) produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a retrograde neuronal messenger that participates in synaptic plasticity, including late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) Fedratinib in vitro and long-term memory (LTM) formation. Our recent studies have shown that nNOS knockout (KO) mice have a severe deficit in contextual fear conditioning compared to wild type (WT) counterparts (Kelley et al. 2009).

Given the role of the nNOS gene in fear conditioning, we investigated whether systemic administration of modulators of NO signaling

affect the formation of contextual and cued fear memories and the effects of these modulators on cyclic 3’5′-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the hippocampus and amygdala.

The preferential nNOS inhibitor S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (SMTC; 10-200 mg/kg) was administered this website (IP) to WT mice, and the NO donor molsidomine (10 mg/kg) was administered (IP) to nNOS KO mice either 30 min pretraining or immediately posttraining.

Pretraining SMTC administration to WT mice impaired both short- and long-term memories of contextual (36% inhibition) but not cued fear conditioning. Pretraining molsidomine administration to nNOS KO mice improved their deficit in short- and long-term memories of contextual fear conditioning (46% increase). Posttraining drug administration had no effect on WT and nNOS KO mice. The systemic administration of SMTC dose-dependently decreased cGMP concentrations down to 25% of control, while molsidomine increased cGMP concentration (three- and five-fold) in amygdala and hippocampus, respectively.

These findings suggest that neuronal NO and its downstream second messenger cGMP are important for acquisition and subsequent consolidation of LTM of contextual fear conditioning.

The two Saccharomyces cerevisiae isoforms were recombinantly prod

The two Saccharomyces cerevisiae isoforms were recombinantly produced in yeast. The effects of the C-terminal tags on expression, purification and enzyme activity are discussed. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a negative-sense RNA virus that has been shown to possess oncolytic activity. NDV’s selective replication in tumor cells has been previously

suggested to be due to the lack of a proper antiviral response in these cells. Here we demonstrate that NDV possesses oncolytic activity in tumor cells capable of a robust type I interferon (IFN) response, suggesting that another mechanism underlies NDV’s tumor specificity. We show that the oncolytic selectivity Trichostatin A mw of NDV for tumor cells is dependent upon tumor cell resistance to apoptosis. Utilizing the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549 overexpressing the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL, we show significant enhancement of oncolytic activity and NDV replication. Interestingly, while the Bcl-xL-overexpressing cells were resistant to apoptotic stimuli induced by chemotherapeutic agents and early viral replication, during the subsequent viral cycles, we observed a paradoxical increase in apoptosis in response to NDV. Selleck Talazoparib The increased oncolytic activity seen was secondary to enhanced viral replication and syncytium

formation. The induction of a type I IFN response was enhanced in Bcl-xL cells. Overall, these findings propose a new mechanism for cancer cell specificity for NDV, making it an attractive anticancer agent for chemoresistant tumors with enhanced antiapoptotic activity.”
“Calcium signaling

is critical for all cells. As a free ion (Ca2+), calcium links many physiological Z-IETD-FMK stimuli to their intracellular effectors by interacting with binding proteins whose occupancy determines the cellular effect of stimulation. Because binding site occupancy depends on the history of Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]), Ca2+ dynamics are critical. Calcium dynamics depend on the functional interplay between Ca2+ transport and buffering systems whose activities depend nonlinearly on [Ca2+]. Thus, understanding Ca2+ dynamics requires detailed information about these Ca2+ handling systems and their regulation in intact cells. However, effective methods for measuring and characterizing intracellular Ca2+ handling have not been available until recently. Using concepts relating voltage-gated ion-channel activity to membrane potential dynamics, we developed such methods to analyze Ca2+ fluxes in intact cells. Here we describe this approach and applications to understanding depolarization-induced Ca2+ responses in sympathetic neurons.”
“Chronic stress is increasingly considered to be a main risk factor for the development of a variety of psychiatric diseases such as depression.

We investigated the ability of supraphysiological levels of CORT

We investigated the ability of supraphysiological levels of CORT to cause hippocampal neuronal death, and to modulate the neurotoxicity of kainic acid (KA) in male C57BL/6J mice. Timed-release CORT pellets (10, 35, 100 mg/21 d) were implanted subcutaneously in the back of mice, and the sustained release

of glucocorticoid caused involution of the thymus and decreased the weight of the spleen. Kainic acid caused stage 1 seizures that were unaffected by CORT; however, steroid treatment decreased KA-associated mortality. Little neuronal damage was detected by the cupric-silver neurodegeneration stain. Neurotoxicity caused by an intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg KA was attenuated by seven days of CORT pre-treatment. The KA-induced increase in cupric-silver staining, reactive gliosis, microglial activation, and blood-brain barrier disruption was attenuated indicating neuroprotection. Our data indicate supraphysiological levels Bafilomycin A1 of CORT do not cause neuronal death or injury in hippocampus of C57BL/6J mice and provide neuroprotection against KA-induced neural damage. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Objective: Congenital heart defects with a component of pulmonary stenosis are often

palliated LY2109761 research buy in childhood by disrupting the pulmonary valve, either by means of dilation or excision. It is unclear what factors affect a patient’s ability to tolerate long-term pulmonary insufficiency before requiring pulmonary valve replacement. We analyze potential factors that are related to the interval between pulmonary valve disruption and pulmonary valve replacement.

Methods: One hundred seven patients were analyzed. They had a congenital diagnosis of pulmonary stenosis or tetralogy LGX818 molecular weight of Fallot, had their first pulmonary valve replacement between 2002 and 2008, and had a known interval between pulmonary valve disruption and pulmonary valve replacement.

The median age at the time of surgical intervention was 2 years for pulmonary valve disruption (range, 0-56 years) and 26 years for pulmonary valve replacement (range, 1-72 years). The median interval was 23 years (range, 0-51 years). Potential related factors were sex, race, initial diagnosis and procedure, age at pulmonary valve disruption, prior shunt operation, presence of branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and degree of pulmonary regurgitation.

Results: As determined by using univariate analysis, male patients had a shorter interval than female patients (median, 16 vs 26 years; P = .01), and African American patients had a shorter interval than white patients (median, 16 vs 25 years; P = .049). A significant correlation was also identified between age at the time of pulmonary valve disruption and the subsequent interval to pulmonary valve replacement. Overall, the interval tended to increase as age at disruption increased (P < .0001).

Here, we review the current understanding of how the Hsp90 chaper

Here, we review the current understanding of how the Hsp90 chaperone machinery ensures the function of proteins important for DNA repair, recombination, and chromosome segregation. We discuss the idea that cell stress can overload Hsp90, resulting in genomic instability that may have important implications for stress adaptation and selection. The importance of Hsp90 in genome

maintenance and its limited capacity to buffer the proteome may underlie the initiation or progression of diseases such as cancer.”
“Objective: We evaluated prophylactic Damus-Kaye-Stansel (DKS) anastomosis in association with VE 822 the timing of a bidirectional Glenn (BDG) procedure as second-stage palliation aiming at Fontan completion to prevent late systemic DihydrotestosteroneDHT mw ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

Methods: Between 1996 and 2005, 25 patients (14 boys; median age, 12 months) underwent a BDG procedure concomitant with DKS anastomosis.

All had a systemic ventricular outflow tract through an intraventricular communication or morphologically developed subaortic conus and had previously undergone pulmonary artery banding. Enlargement of intraventricular communication and/or resection of a subaortic conus were not performed before or during the operation.

Results: Twenty-one (84%) patients subsequently underwent a Fontan operation, with a follow-up period of 6.8 +/- 1.9 years (range, 4-11 years), with no mortalities after the Fontan operation. Cardiac catheterization showed that systemic ventricular end-diastolic volume was significantly decreased from 187% +/- 74% of normal before BDG to 139% +/- 35% after (P = .038) and to 73% +/- 14% at 4.3 years after the Fontan operation STI571 (P < .001). However, the pressure gradient across the systemic ventricular

outflow tract remained at 0.5 +/- 0.8 mm Hg after DKS anastomosis and 0.6 +/- 2.3 mm Hg at 4.6 years after the Fontan operation. None of the patients showed more than moderate aortic or neoaortic regurgitation, except 1 who progressed to pulmonary regurgitation after DKS anastomosis and required a reoperation for a systemic ventricular outflow tract. No anatomic properties affected late neoaortic valve function.

Conclusions: Regardless of a significant reduction in systemic ventricular volume, DKS anastomosis concomitant with a BDG procedure shows promise for a nonobstructive systemic ventricular outflow tract after a Fontan operation. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;143:137-43)”
“The beneficial use of NC in MALDI-MS has previously been reported to provide better S/N and reproducibility as well as less alkali metal adducts. We have therefore investigated if additional beneficial properties of NC also existed for commonly employed proteomics-based LC-MALDI procedures.

Here we show that although IE86

does repress the UL144-me

Here we show that although IE86

does repress the UL144-mediated activation of a synthetic NF-kappa B promoter, it is unable to block UL144-mediated activation of the CCL22 promoter, and this lack of responsiveness to IE86 appears to be regulated by binding of the CREB transcription factor.”
“Respiratory neurons selleck products are synchronized on a long time scale to generate inspiratory and expiratory-phase activities that are critical for respiration. Long time scale synchrony within the respiratory network occurs on a time scale of more than hundreds of milliseconds to seconds. During inspiration, neurons are synchronized on a short time scale to produce synchronous oscillations, which shape the pattern of inspiratory motor output. This latter form of synchrony within the respiratory network spans a shorter time range of tens of milliseconds. In the neonatal mouse rhythmically active medullary slice preparation, we recorded bilateral inspiratory activity from hypoglossal (XII) rootlets to study where in the slice synchronous oscillations are generated. Based on previous work that proposed the origin of these oscillations, we tested the pre-Botzinger complex (PreBotC) and the XII motor nucleus. Unilateral excitation of the PreBotC, via local application MCC950 clinical trial of a perfusate containing high K+, increased mean inspiratory burst frequency bilaterally (296 +/- 66%;

n=10, P<0.01), but had no effect on

the relative power of oscillations. In contrast, unilateral excitation of the XII nucleus increased both mean peak integrated activity bilaterally (ipsilateral: 41 +/- 10%, P<0.01; Blebbistatin molecular weight contralateral: 17 +/- 7%; P<0.05, n=10) and oscillation power in the ipsilateral (50 +/- 17%, n=7, P<0.05), but not in the contralateral rootlet. Cross-correlation analysis of control inspiratory activity recorded from the left and right XII rootlets produced cross-correlation histograms with significant peaks centered around a time lag of zero and showed no subsidiary harmonic peaks. Coherence analysis of left and right XII rootlet recordings demonstrated that oscillations are only weakly coherent. Together, the findings from local application experiments and cross-correlation and coherence analyses indicate that short time scale synchronous oscillations recorded in the slice are likely generated in or immediately upstream of the XII motor nucleus. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”
“The Old World hantaviruses, members of the family Bunyaviridae, cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Transmission to humans occurs via inhalation of aerosols contaminated with the excreta of infected rodents. The viral antigen is detectable in dendritic cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and, most importantly, microvascullar endothelial cells.

Speech samples were acquired from 30 individuals carrying the mut

Speech samples were acquired from 30 individuals carrying the mutant HIT gene (13 PreHD, 17 early stage HD) and 15 matched controls. Participants read a passage, produced a monologue and said the days of the week. Data were analysed acoustically for measures of timing, frequency and intensity. There was a clear effect of group across most acoustic measures,

so that speech performance differed in-line with disease progression. Comparisons across groups revealed significant differences between the control and the early stage HD group on measures of timing (e.g., speech rate). Participants carrying the mutant WIT gene presented Givinostat clinical trial with slower rates of speech, took longer to say words and produced greater silences between and within words compared to healthy controls. Importantly, speech this website rate showed a significant correlation to burden of disease scores. The speech of early stage HD differed significantly from controls. The speech of PreHD, although not reaching significance, tended to lie between the performance of controls and early stage HD. This suggests that changes in speech production appear to be developing prior to diagnosis. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

reserved.”
“Mapping metabolic “”signatures”" can provide new insights into addictive mechanisms and potentially identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

We examined the differences in metabolites related to the tyrosine, tryptophan, purine, and oxidative stress pathways between cocaine-dependent subjects and healthy controls. Several Cl-amidine research buy of these metabolites serve as biological indices underlying the mechanisms of reinforcement, toxicity, and oxidative

stress.

Metabolomic analysis was performed in 18 DSM-IV-diagnosed cocaine-dependent individuals with at least 2 weeks of abstinence and ten drug-free controls. Plasma concentrations of 37 known metabolites were analyzed and compared using a liquid chromatography electrochemical array platform. Multivariate analyses were used to study the relationship between severity of drug use [Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores] and biological measures.

Cocaine subjects showed significantly higher levels of n-methylserotonin (p < 0.0017) and guanine (p < 0.0031) and lower concentrations of hypoxanthine (p < 0.0002), anthranilate (p < 0.0024), and xanthine (p < 0.012), compared to controls. Multivariate analyses showed that a combination of n-methylserotonin and xanthine contributed to 73% of the variance in predicting the ASI scores (p < 0.0001). Logistic regression showed that a model combining n-methylserotonin, xanthine, xanthosine, and guanine differentiated cocaine and control groups with no overlap.