When the core-shell ratio was 40/60, the

CPVC/ABS blends

When the core-shell ratio was 40/60, the

CPVC/ABS blends were much ductile in more widely AN range than the blends, whereas the core-shell ratio of ABS was 70/30. The differences also showed in the SEM micrographs by the investigation of toughening mechanism. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 3448-3454, 2010″
“Para-hexaphenylene (p-6P) molecules exhibit a characteristic photoinduced reaction (bleaching) resulting in a decrease in luminescence intensity upon UV light exposure, which could S3I-201 render the technological use of the nanofibers problematic. In order to investigate the photoinduced reaction in nanofibers, optical bleaching experiments have been performed by irradiating both pristine and coated nanofibers with UV light. Oxide coating materials (SiO(x) and Al(2)O(3)) were applied onto p-6P nanofibers. These treatments caused a reduction in the bleaching reaction but in addition, the nanofiber luminescence selleck compound spectrum was significantly altered. It was observed that some

polymer coatings [a statistical copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and 2,2-bis-trifluoromethyl-4,5-difluoro-1,3-dioxole, P(TFE-PDD), and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA] do not interfere with the luminescence spectrum from the p-6P but are not effective in stopping the bleaching. Bilayer coatings with first a polymer material, which should work as a protection layer to avoid modifications of the p-6P luminescence spectrum, and second an oxide layer used as oxygen blocker were tested and it was found that a particular bilayer polymer/oxide combination results in a significant

reduction in bleaching without affecting significantly the emission spectrum from the nanofibers. Emricasan research buy (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3427561]“
“Aims: To assess the activity of a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil in patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract.

Materials and methods: Eight centres within the UK entered 50 patients into the study. Twenty-four weeks of continuously infused 5-fluorouracil, 300 mg/m(2)/day through a mini-pump, were planned. The primary outcome was tumour response at 8 weeks after the start of treatment.

Results: The median age of the patients was 68 years and 37 (80.4%) had a World Health Organization performance status of 0 or 1. The overall response rate at 8 weeks, according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) criteria in 46 evaluable patients, was 15% (95% confidence interval 5-26%) and 20% (95% confidence interval 8-31%) when assessments at all time points were included. The median progression-free survival was 1.9 months (95% confidence interval 1.8-2.7 months) and the median overall survival was 6.5 months (95% confidence interval 4.1-8.5 months). The most frequent grade 3/4 toxicities were mucositis and diarrhoea (each in 6.

Children in the asthma cohort under the age of 13 years demonstra

Children in the asthma cohort under the age of 13 years demonstrated a significant increased risk of subsequent hospitalization as compared to the age-matched reference cohort of children without asthma. Those in the asthma cohort who were 3-5 years old demonstrated the highest risk (50%) of subsequent hospitalization (HR = 1.50 [99% CI 1.23-1.83]; p<.001). Conclusions.

Study results can be utilized in the development of appropriate interventions aimed at preventing and reducing hospital admissions, improving patient care, decreasing overall costs, and lessening complications among pediatric EPZ5676 price patients with asthma.”
“Action potential-evoked calcium influx into presynaptic boutons is a key determinant of synaptic strength and function. Here, we have examined the calcium dynamics at individual presynaptic

CH5424802 boutons of the cerebellar granule cells in the molecular layer of cerebellar slices and investigated whether different subpopulations of granule cell boutons exhibit different calcium dynamics. We found that a population of boutons with low basal calcium clearance rates may activate a second clearance mechanism and exhibit biphasic calcium decay on high calcium influx induced by bursts of action potentials. We also found that boutons on ascending axons and parallel fibers show similar calcium influx amplitudes and calcium clearance rates in response to action potentials. Lastly, we found that parallel fiber boutons located in the inner molecular layer have a higher calcium clearance rate than boutons located in the outer molecular layer. These results suggest that cerebellar granule cell boutons should not be regarded as a homogeneous population, but rather that different subpopulations of boutons may exhibit different properties. The heterogeneity of presynaptic boutons may allow different learned behaviors to be encoded in the same circuit without mutual interference and may be a general mechanism for increasing the computational

capacity of the brain.”
“Background. The current cross-sectional www.selleckchem.com/products/semaxanib-su5416.html study examined the associations between low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, and eczema in Japanese children aged 3 years. Methods. Study subjects were 2004 children. All data were obtained using a questionnaire. Outcomes were defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for sex, number of siblings, breastfeeding duration, paternal and maternal educational level, paternal and maternal history of allergic disorders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, secondhand smoke exposure at home, and gestational age at birth. Results. The prevalence of wheeze, asthma, and eczema in the previous 12 months were 22.1%, 9.0%, and 17.5%, respectively, and 8.4% were classified as LBW(<2500 g), 4.7% as preterm birth (<37 weeks), and 7.1% as SGA (<10th percentile).

Of the 288 genes on the array, 46 genes were distinctively up-or

Of the 288 genes on the array, 46 genes were distinctively up-or down-regulated by transfection with IVT core RNA in comparison with NS3 or GFP RNA treatments. Forty-two of these genes are involved in DC maturation. The effects of core on maturation of iDCs were confirmed with a significant increase in surface expression of CD83 and HLA-DR, a reduction of phagocytosis, as well as an increase in proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion by T cells in a mixed lymphocyte

reaction assay. These results show that HCV core does not have an inhibitory effect on human DC maturation, but could be SB273005 order a target for the immune system.”
“The use of hard-axis magnetoresistance (MR) measurements for characterization of the device-level anisotropy field and thermal stability in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions is proposed and evaluated. We develop functional forms describing the PXD101 manufacturer hard-axis MR curves using a Stoner-Wohlfarth particle model, which are then used for fitting to the experimental curves to extract the free layer magnetic anisotropy field. The model accounts for nonidealities observed in the experimental MR curves in the form of asymmetry (with respect to applied fields), and linear drop in resistance at high fields. Micromagnetic simulations are used to identify the cause for these deviations and verify the presented model.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3548830]“
“Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease, due to mutations in TTPA gene (Arita et

al. in Biochem J 306(Pt. 2):437-443, 1995; Hentati et al. in Ann Neurol 39:295-300, 1996), which encodes for alpha-TTP, a cytosolic liver protein that is presumed SN-38 to function in the intracellular transport of alpha-tocopherol. This disease is characterized clinically by symptoms with often striking resemblance to those of Friedreich ataxia. The neurological symptoms include ataxia, dysarthria, hyporeflexia, and decreased vibration sense, sometimes associated with cardiomyopathy and retinitis pigmentosa (Mariotti et al. in Neurol Sci 25:130-137, 2004). Vitamin E supplementation improves symptoms and prevents disease progress (Doria-Lamba et al. in Eur J Pediatr 165(7):494-495, 2006). Over 20 mutations have been identified in patients with AVED. In the present paper we summarize the recent findings on molecular genetic of this disease including the list of the known mutations.”
“Strong coupling between the ferroelectric and magnetic order has been previously observed in hexagonal HoMnO3 at a spin reorientation transition between a P6′(3)cm’ and a P6′(3)c’m magnetic phases. Understanding the transition between these phases may help illuminate the mechanism of multiferroic coupling in hexagonal R MnO3.

This technique allows the glycopeptide antibiotic eremomycin to b

This technique allows the glycopeptide antibiotic eremomycin to be determined both in aqueous solutions (with a sensitivity as high as 0.1 ng/ml) and in blood plasma. The cross-reactivity Combretastatin A4 in vitro of the antibodies with vancomycin was 0.4% of that for eremomycin, while teicoplanin was almost not recognized. Experiments with blood plasma samples diluted 1: 10 showed that the assay was

linear over the concentration range 1-30 ng/ml and that the variation coefficient did not exceed 10%. The high sensitivity and selectivity of this test make it suitable for pharmacokinetic studies and drug monitoring analysis.”
“Preeclampsia can cause myriad organ dysfunction, including cranial nerve palsies that pose diagnostic and management dilemmas. We present an unusual case of third nerve palsy, find more (presenting as diplopia, ptosis) with hypertension, hyperreflexia, proteinuria, easy bruising in a parturient at 34 + 6/52 weeks of twins gestation. She was treated as for severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; intravenous magnesium sulphate and labetalol commenced and emergent cesarean delivery performed under general anesthesia due

to concerns of low platelets and for airway protection should her glascow coma scale (GCS) deteriorate. Postoperatively, stroke, aneurysm and intra-cerebral causes of third nerve palsy were excluded, with subsequent recovery of symptoms upon blood pressure normalization. The eye signs are postulated to be due to two preeclamptic mechanisms involving disordered cerebral autoregulation: (1) hyperperfusion and breakdown of the

blood-brain barrier that occurs with rising hypertension, causing fluid/blood product extravasation into brain parenchyma, or (2) focal reactive vasoconstriction and local hypoperfusion, contributed to by endothelial dysfunction.”
“Applied mass spectrometric techniques can fundamentally be divided into those starting from intact proteins (top down) and those starting from peptides derived by chemical or, more commonly, enzymatic digestion (bottom up). This article primarily covers top-down analysis and the information that it can obtain. It therefore covers electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization techniques and top-down fragmentation techniques. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction There is undoubtedly a link between lower urinary tract and psychological CYT387 symptoms. The association is likely to be multifactorial, but whether psychological symptoms are causal or coincidental remains unknown. Methods: This paper is a result of a think tank session conducted at the ICI-RS meeting 2011 in Bristol and a PubMed search on the subject of psychology and LUTS. Results: Recent population studies have shown that LUTS are prevalent and that psychological morbidity is related to severity of LUTS. Evidence suggests that the psychological status of patients plays a significant role in their symptoms perception.

Results: All 94 tumors showed a positive reaction for pRb (weakly

Results: All 94 tumors showed a positive reaction for pRb (weakly check details positive in 67.0%; strongly positive in 33.0%). p16 was expressed in only 52.1% (weakly positive in 48.9%; intermediately positive in 3.2%; no strongly positive expression). The expression of p16-positive tumors was significantly

associated with the expression of pRb (p = 0.040). Tumor size, grading, lymph node and distant metastases did not correlate with p16/pRb expression. Conclusion: pRb and p16 control the cell cycle as tumor suppressors. Therefore, in many tumors they are dysregulated. There are distinct differences in expression in various individual RCC. However, in a limited number of cases there was no significant correlation with clinical parameters. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Vorinostat clinical trial Karger AG, Basel”
“I n eusocial organisms, some individuals specialize in reproduction and others in altruistic helping. The evolution of eusociality is, therefore, also the evolution of remarkable inequality. For example, a colony of honeybees (Apis mellifera) may contain 50 000 females all of whom can lay eggs. But 100 per cent of the females and 99.9 per cent of the males are offspring of the queen. How did such extremes evolve? Phylogenetic analyses show that high relatedness was almost certainly necessary for the origin of eusociality. However, even the highest family levels of kinship are insufficient to cause

the extreme inequality seen in e. g. honeybees via ‘voluntary altruism’. ‘Enforced altruism’ is needed, i.e. social pressures that deter individuals from attempting to reproduce. Coercion acts at two stages in an individual’s life cycle. Queens are typically Buparlisib larger so larvae can be coerced into developing into workers by being given less food. Workers are coerced into working by ‘policing’, in which workers or the queen eat worker-laid eggs or aggress fertile workers. In some cases, individuals rebel, such as when stingless bee larvae develop into dwarf queens. The incentive to rebel is strong as an individual is the most closely related to its

own offspring. However, because individuals gain inclusive fitness by rearing relatives, there is also a strong incentive to ‘acquiesce’ to social coercion. In a queenright honeybee colony, the policing of worker-laid eggs is very effective, which results in most workers working instead of attempting to reproduce. Thus, extreme altruism is due to both kinship and coercion. Altruism is frequently seen as a Darwinian puzzle but was not a puzzle that troubled Darwin. Darwin saw his difficulty in explaining how individuals that did not reproduce could evolve, given that natural selection was based on the accumulation of small heritable changes. The recognition that altruism is an evolutionary puzzle, and the solution was to wait another 100 years for William Hamilton.

The breadth of research in ALS continues

to grow with exc

The breadth of research in ALS continues

to grow with exciting new discoveries in disease pathogenesis and potential future therapeutics. There is a growing list of identified mutations in familial ALS, including those in genes encoding TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, which are expanding our understanding of the role of RNA modulation in ALS pathogenesis. There is a greater appreciation for the role of glial cells in motor neuron disease. Mitochondrial dysfunction is also being shown to be critical for motor neuron degeneration. In addition to pharmacotherapy, there are promising early developments with therapeutic implications in the areas of RNA interference, stem cell therapies, viral vector-mediated gene therapy, and immunotherapy. With greater SB273005 mw understanding of ALS pathogenesis and exciting new therapeutic technologies, there is hope for future progress in treating this disease.”

to date, only a few kinds of poly (azomethine-urethane)s (PAMUs) derived from aromatic hydroxy compounds were obtained and studied with thermal degradation steps. Novel PAMUs were prepared using the hydroxy-functionalized Schiff Entinostat supplier bases derived from melamine and toluene-2,4-diisocyanate. Schiff base prepolymers were synthesized by the condensation reaction of melamine with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 2hydroxy-1-naphtaldehyde. Characterization https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ars-1620.html was made by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, and SEC techniques. Thermal characterizations of the novel PAMUs were carried out by TG-DTA and DSC techniques. Thermal decomposition steps at various temperatures were also clarified and the physical changes of the synthesized PAMUs with exposing to the thermal degradation steps were displayed. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 3027-3035, 2011″
“Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) disease

encompasses a genetically heterogeneous group of inherited neuropathies, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies. CMT results from mutations in more than 40 genes expressed in Schwann cells and neurons causing overlapping phenotypes. The classic CMT phenotype reflects length-dependent axonal degeneration characterized by distal sensory loss and weakness, deep tendon reflex abnormalities, and skeletal deformities. Recent articles have provided insight into the molecular pathogenesis of CMT, which, for the first time, suggest potential therapeutic targets. Although there are currently no effective medications for CMT, multiple clinical trials are ongoing or being planned. This review will focus on the underlying pathomechanisms and diagnostic approaches of CMT and discuss the emerging therapeutic strategies.”
“Electrically conductive composites comprised of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber and steel fibers were prepared by an open mill mixing method.

3% and 80 determinations per hour, respectively Reagents consump

3% and 80 determinations per hour, respectively. Reagents consumption was estimated as 3.5 mu g of NaBrO3, 9.5 mu g of methyl orange and 400 mu g of NaBr per determination, generating 4.5 mL of waste. The results for pharmaceutical samples agreed with those obtained by the reference chromatographic procedure at the 95% confidence level. The procedure is a fast, greener and reliable alternative for SMT determination.”
“Introduction and hypothesis The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends antenatal pelvic floor exercises

during first pregnancy to reduce postpartum stress incontinence. The aim of this audit was to assess patient awareness and compliance with this guideline.


An anonymous self-constructed questionnaire was given to patients after their first delivery.

Results A total of 223 questionnaires were returned over a 6-month period. Although 95% of patients were aware of the importance of pelvic buy BMS-777607 floor exercises, only a limited proportion of them had the right information and a minority practised them. Printed material seemed to be very influential in getting the message across. The importance of giving information early in pregnancy and national awareness was shown in the suggestions buy A-1155463 for improvement.

Conclusions Patient awareness and actual practise of antenatal pelvic floor exercises did not meet NICE guidelines, calling for strategies to improve awareness and adherence.”
“Background : Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently expressed in the invasive front of colorectal cancer (CRC), but its clinicopathologic significance remains unclear. We investigated the clinical value of the EGFR expression at the invasive front of CRC. Methods : We performed an immunohistochemical Bcl 2 inhibitor analysis in order to examine the

expression and distribution of EGFR in 214 cases of CRC. The EGFR status was considered positive when >= 1% of the tumor cells had membranous staining. Results : Overall, an EGFR expression was observed in 144 (67%) cases and it had no significant relationship with the clinicopathologic parameters. However, an EGFR expression at the invasive front was correlated with lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis and a high level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (p = 0.028, p = 0.043, and p = 0.045, respectively). For the budding-positive CRCs liver metastases were found in the cases with an EGFR expression at the budding, but no liver metastasis occurred in the EGFR negative cases at the budding (p = 0.030). Conclusions : An EGFR expression at the invasive front has clinicopathologic significances in patients with CRC. An EGFR expression at tumor cell budding is a pathologic marker that suggests the high potential for liver metastasis in CRC.”
“Calixarenes (CAs), with their unique three-dimensional surface, are one of the best known host molecules along with cyclodextrins, and crown ethers.

Although the olig2(+) cells and OLGs did not increase


Although the olig2(+) cells and OLGs did not increase

significantly in the peri-infarct cortex (CTX), the OPCs increased in this region by 95% at day 14 vs. day 1 after tMCAO. The numbers of OPCs and OLGs remained low after an initial reduction at day 1 in the peri-infarct corpus callosum (CC). Correlation analyses showed that the numbers of olig2(+) cells (r=0.73, P=0.03) and OLGs (r=0.74, P=0.02) correlated with local vessel density; however, the number of OPCs did not correlate with vessel density (r=0.43, P=0.24). Our data show that oligogenesis and the maturation of OPCs differ in various brain regions and the difference in regional angiogenic response is one of the potential reasons.”
“Background. The ACCOMPLISH Trial investigated intensive antihypertensive I-BET-762 purchase combination treatment with benazepril + amlodipine (B + A) or benazepril + hydrochlorothiazide (B + H) on cardiovascular

outcomes in patients with systolic hypertension. We analyzed the baseline predictors of achieving a systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140 mmHg and achieved SBP level by the end of 12 months in both treatment groups. Methods. Baseline and 12-month SBP was this website available in 10,506 patients, of whom 6250 had diabetes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used for SBP control at 12 months and multivariable regression models were used for the prediction of SBP at 12 months. A stepwise procedure was used to select significant (p < 0.001) predictors in multivariate analyses. Results. Mean (+/- SD) BP fell from 145.4/80.1 (+/- 18.3/10.7) mmHg at randomization to 132.8/74.7 (+/- 16.0/9.6) mmHg at 12 months. The main baseline predictors of SBP control <140 mmHg were region (USA > Nordic region) and Caucasian ethnicity in both randomization arms. A

higher diastolic BP and the use of lipid lowering agents indicated favorable effects in the B + H arm only. The predictors of uncontrolled SBP were: (i) higher baseline SBP values, (ii) higher number of previous check details antihypertensive medications in both arms, (iii) the previous use of insulin in the B + A arm, and (iv) pre-trial calcium channel blocker (CCB) use in the B + H arm. Additionally, pre-trial use of thiazides and electrocardiogram (ECG)-left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) at baseline predicted higher, and smoking lower absolute SBP in the B + A arm and the use of thiazides and proteinuria a higher SBP in the B + H arm. Conclusion. Irrespective of treatment, patients in the USA and Caucasians achieved better SBP control, whereas higher baseline SBP and more previous antihypertensive medications indicated less control. Concomitant use of lipid lowering treatment indicated a better SBP control in the benazepril + hydrochlorothiazide arm.

In this study, we introduce a new motif-finding method, RNAcontex

In this study, we introduce a new motif-finding method, RNAcontext, designed to elucidate RBP-specific sequence and structural preferences with greater accuracy than existing approaches. We evaluated RNAcontext on recently published in vitro and in vivo RNA affinity selected data and demonstrate that RNAcontext identifies known binding preferences for several control proteins including HuR, PTB, and Vts1p and predicts new RNA structure preferences for SF2/ASF, RBM4, FUSIP1 and SLM2. The predicted preferences

for SF2/ASF are consistent with its recently reported in vivo binding sites. RNAcontext is an accurate and efficient motif finding method ideally suited for using large-scale RNA-binding affinity datasets to determine the relative binding preferences of RBPs for a wide range of RNA sequences and structures.”
“We present a computer simulation and associated experimental validation of assembly of glial-like support cells into the interweaving Duvelisib cell line Selleckchem BKM120 hexagonal lattice that spans the Drosophila pupal eye. This process of cell movements organizes the ommatidial array into a functional pattern. Unlike earlier simulations that focused on the arrangements of cells within individual ommatidia, here we examine

the local movements that lead to large-scale organization of the emerging eye field. Simulations based on our experimental observations of cell adhesion, cell death, and cell movement successfully patterned a tracing of an emerging wild-type pupal eye. Surprisingly, altering cell adhesion had only a mild effect on patterning, contradicting our previous hypothesis that the patterning was primarily

the result of preferential adhesion between IRM-class surface proteins. Instead, our simulations highlighted the importance of programmed cell death (PCD) as well as a previously unappreciated variable: the expansion of cells’ apical surface areas, which promoted rearrangement of neighboring cells. We tested this prediction experimentally by preventing expansion in the apical area of individual cells: patterning was disrupted in a manner predicted by our simulations. Our work demonstrates the value of combining computer simulation with in vivo experiments to uncover novel mechanisms that are perpetuated throughout the eye field. It also demonstrates the utility of the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model signaling pathway (GGH) for modeling the links between local cellular interactions and emergent properties of developing epithelia as well as predicting unanticipated results in vivo.”
“Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, also known as brittle bone disease) is caused mostly by mutations in two type I collagen genes, COL1A1 and COL1A2 encoding the pro-alpha 1 (I) and pro-alpha 2 (I) chains of type I collagen, respectively. Two Chinese families with autosomal dominant OI were identified and characterized. Linkage analysis revealed linkage of both families to COL1A2 on chromosome 7q21.3-q22.1.

“Objectives: The purpose of this study was to conduct a pr

“Objectives: The purpose of this study was to conduct a prospective assessment of preoperative anxiety in adolescents

undergoing surgery.

Aim: To systematically conduct a multimodal evaluation of preoperative anxiety in adolescents undergoing surgery.

Background: The existing literature on preoperative anxiety in children has overwhelmingly ignored adolescents in the surgical setting, yet adolescents may be at risk for under treatment Lonafarnib molecular weight of preoperative anxiety.

Methods: A total of 59 adolescents aged 11-18 were recruited. Behavioral and physiological manifestations of anxiety were assessed with a visual analog scale and an ambulatory physiological data recorder that collected heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), and blood pressure data. Baseline emotional and behavioral functioning (child behavior checklist [CBCL]) as well as temperament (early adolescent temperament questionnaire-revised – parent version) and other potential risk factors were also assessed.

Results: Over 80% of adolescents reported significant anxiety at the time of induction. Self-reported anxiety increased significantly at each time point (holding, separation from parents, and mask introduction), P = 0.001. Significant increases in both HR (P = 0.02) and SCL (P < 0.001) were found from holding to mask introduction.

Several risk factors were found to predict higher anxiety at mask introduction, including AZD6244 baseline anxiety and depression (CBCL, Internalizing, LDN-193189 mouse P = 0.04), somatizing problems (P = 0.05), and fearful temperament (P = 0.03).

Conclusions: A large proportion

of adolescents experience significant anxiety that increases from the preoperative holding area to anesthesia induction. Underlying baseline anxiety and depression as well somatization and fearful temperament are predictors of this phenomenon.”
“BACKGROUNDBiodiesel production is not economically competitive with petroleum diesel particularly when using virgin and refined vegetable oils. Rich-in-oil miscella obtained from the extraction of soybean oil with ethanol may be a promising feedstock for taking off the refining process, simultaneously introducing an environmental friendly step by replacing hexane by ethanol as a renewable solvent in the oil extraction process. The aim of this study was to investigate the production of biodiesel from the oil-ethanol miscella by direct transesterification using Novozym (R) 435 as catalyst and ethanol as acyl acceptor; simultaneously optimizing the process by response surface methodology and enzyme reuse.

RESULTSThe best experimental conditions indicated by the empirical model were temperature 40 degrees C, oil:ethanol molar ratio 1:4.5 and catalyst concentration 9.5% for 24h, reaching 85.4% fatty acid ethylic esters (FAEE) yield.