6 months of vitamin D-3 supplementation, 21 of 32 p


6 months of vitamin D-3 supplementation, 21 of 32 participants (66%) receiving 400 IU and 14 of 59 participants (24%) receiving 2,000 IU of vitamin D-3 still had low 25(OH)D levels. The largest increases in serum 25(OH)D levels were observed in subjects with baseline levels <30 ng/mL CCI-779 datasheet who received 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily.

Conclusion: Regardless of baseline 25(OH)D level, in persons 65 years of age and older, 6-month vitamin D-3 supplementation with 400 IU daily resulted in low 25(OH) D in most individuals, while 2,000 IU daily maintained 25(OH)D levels within an acceptable range in most people on this regimen. (Endocr Pract. 2012;18:847-854)”
“While systemic viral infections are exceptionally common, symptomatic viral infections of the brain parenchyma itself are very rare, but a serious

neurologic condition. It is estimated that viral encephalitis occurs at a rate of 1.4 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Geography is a major determinant of encephalitis caused by vector-borne pathogens. A diagnosis of viral encephalitis could be a challenge to the clinician, since almost 70% of viral encephalitis cases are left without an etiologic agent identified. In this review, the most common viral encephalitis will be discussed, with focus on ecology, diagnosis, and clinical management.”
“Aim: This article will evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravaginal transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for the treatment of vulvar pain and dyspareunia during the postpartum selleck chemicals period related to perineal trauma caused by episiotomy.

Methods: From January 2007 to January 2009, 45 women presenting with postpartum dyspareunia related to perineal trauma after a vaginal delivery were educated on the importance of the pelvic floor and its part in continuing dyspareunia. The treatment consisted of weekly applications of intravaginal LY294002 chemical structure TENS in an outpatient setting and daily home therapy with myofascial stretching and exercises

of the pelvic floor musculature. The results were evaluated using the cotton swab test, the Marinoff Dyspareunia Scale and the Visual Analog Scale, and the anovulvar distance was assessed prior to and at the end of the treatment period.

Results: Of the women included in the study, 84.5% reported an improvement of dyspareunia after only five applications of TENS, with a total remission of symptoms (in 95% of patients) at the end of the protocol. At follow-up, eight months after the end of treatment, all patients were pain free.

Conclusions: Therapy with intravaginal transcutaneous nerve stimulation and pelvic floor relaxation exercises is safe and effective in the improvement of vulvar pain and dyspareunia in women with postpartum perineal trauma due to episiorrhaphy, after spontaneous delivery.”
“In this study, suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed to screen differentially expressed genes in ovarian tissues between polytocous and monotocous goats.

These muscle moment arms were compared with those measured preope

These muscle moment arms were compared with those measured preoperatively in the anatomical shoulders.

Results: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty resulted in significant increases in the abductor moment arms of the anterior subregion of the deltoid (mean increase = 10.4 mm; 95% confidence interval = 7.5 to 13.3 mm) and the middle subregion of the deltoid (mean increase = 15.5 mm; 95% confidence interval = 10.8 to 20.3 mm) as well as recruitment of the posterior subregion of the deltoid as an abductor. The superior subregion of the pectoralis major (the clavicular fibers)

and anterior subregion of the deltoid were the most effective flexors and had a substantial potential to initiate flexion. The adductor and extensor moment arms of the teres major, latissimus dorsi subregions, and inferior and middle subregions of Compound Library in vivo the pectoralis major increased substantially after the arthroplasty. The subscapularis subregions behaved Napabucasin as extensors, abductors, and adductors after the arthroplasty; this was in contrast to their roles in the anatomical shoulder, in which they were mainly flexors and adductors.

Conclusions: Reverse

total shoulder arthroplasty increases the moment arms of the major abductors, flexors, adductors, and extensors of the glenohumeral joint, thereby reducing muscle effort during common tasks such as lifting and pushing.”
“Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is a challenging problem in the process of drug utilization. Inhibition of glucuronidation reaction of drugs is a major reason for DDI. The aim of the present study is to predict propofol-thienorphine interaction from the perspective of propofol’s inhibition towards thienorphine glucuronidation. The human liver microsomes (HLMs) incubation system supplemented with uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) was used. The results showed that propofol inhibited HLMs-catalyzed thienorphine glucuronidation in a concentration-dependent manner. Both Dixon plot and Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that the inhibition

of thienorphine glucuronidation by propofol was best fit to competitive inhibition, and the second plot using slopes from Lineweaver-Burk plot versus thienorphine concentration was used to determine the inhibition kinetic parameter (K-i) value to be 365.9 mu M. Whether the in vitro inhibition of propofol towards thienorphine glucuronidation can induce the in vivo propofol-thienorphine interaction might be influenced by many factors, including various pharmacokinetic factors influencing the in vivo concentration of propofol. These data should be carefully explained due to complicated factors influencing the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) results.”
“Background: Extra-axial chordomas are rare low-grade malignant tumors thought to arise from notochordal remnants in the extra-axial skeleton.

Results: Visual radiography helped identify 92 (36 8%) patients w

Results: Visual radiography helped identify 92 (36.8%) patients with at least one vertebral fracture (mean, 1.8 per patient). Most fractures were present in T7, T12, and L1. Excellent agreement was MLN4924 ic50 found between VFA and visual radiography, with 97.5% concordance and kappa = 0.82; VFA and semiquantitative radiography were in agreement in 97.4% of patients, with kappa = 0.83;

and visual radiography and semiquantitative radiography were in agreement in 98.1%, with kappa = 0.87. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values calculated by lesion level for VFA compared with visual assessment were 83.6%, 99.1%, 84.1%, and 99.1%, respectively.

Conclusion: VFA performed with patients in the supine position is an accurate method to help detect vertebral fractures when compared with conventional spine radiography. VFA permits combination of fracture assessment with bone mineral density measurement

in a single session. (C) RSNA, 2009″
“We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the geometric and electronic properties of (10,0) and (5,5) BN/C nanotube heterostructures. We show that both of them have smooth interfaces which are free from bond mismatch and vacancy defect. Interface states appear in the band gaps, due to the discontinuity of pi-pi bonding of carbon nanotube segments, and exhibit asymmetric distribution in the two segments. The charge redistribution in the region near the interfaces

gives rise to a build-in electric field and modulates the static electric potential profiles in the heterostructures. The band scheme diagrams of these JQEZ5 price heterostructures are also presented. (C) 2010 American Institute Quisinostat purchase of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3383058]“
“Patients with metastatic melanoma, but also other solid tumors (e.g., lung or breast cancer), may develop cutaneous metastases in advanced stages. The goal of treatment is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, fetor, secretions, or bleeding. Current treatment modalities are based on a multimodal treatment approach. Beside surgery, treatment options such as electrochemotherapy, isolated limb perfusion, radiotherapy, and local administration of cytokines or chemotherapy agents are available. In case of concomitant visceral metastases, this local treatment approach may not affect overall survival, but the palliation of these tumor-associated symptoms very often improves the quality of life for the patient.”
“Core symptoms of Tourette’s syndrome are assumed to result from inhibitory dysfunction, which could also impair theory of mind. Here the authors report evidence for theory of mind difficulties: patients exhibit deficits in recognizing faux pas and understanding intentionality. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2010; 22:348-351)”
“Purpose: To prospectively determine the comparability of 1.0-T extremity magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 1.

Inhibition is mediated

Inhibition is mediated Selleckchem APR-246 independent of nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B, appears to target TNF alpha-mediated chromatin modifications, and is at least partially dependent upon HIF expression. The absence of complete VCAM-1 expression rescue with HIF silencing implies an important regulatory role for an Fe(II)/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase

distinct from the prolyl and asparagyl hydroxylases that control HIF function. Identification of this dioxygenase may provide a valuable target for modulating inflammation in human tissues. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology.”
“Wilson’s disease was described by Wilson in 1912. It is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene, a membrane-bound copper transporting ATPase. The deficiency of ATP7B protein impairs the biliary copper excretion,

resulting in positive copper balance, hepatic copper accumulation, and copper toxicity from oxidant damage. The disease is a form of copper poisoning caused by a defect in the transport of copper that renders the patient unable to handle trace amounts of copper normally present in the diet and hence the clinical manifestations selleck inhibitor are those typically caused by copper toxicity and primarily involve the liver and the brain. Because effective treatment is available, it is important to make an early diagnosis. In this article, a review of clinical aspects of Wilson’s disease, and its impact on dental management and dental considerations are discussed. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:20-23)”

observation of dielectric resonance over the frequency range 40-110 GHz in single crystal yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and its magnetic field tuning characteristics are reported. The dimensions of YIG are appropriately chosen in order to have the dielectric resonance occur at a much higher frequency than the ferromagnetic resonance and avoid any hybrid spin-electromagnetic modes. The dielectric modes are magnetically tunable by 1 GHz with a magnetic field of similar to 1.75 kOe. The tuning range and required bias magnetic fields, however, can be controlled with the sample dimensions (or the demagnetization factor C188-9 mw N(zz)). Theoretical calculations on magnetic field tuning characteristics for the dielectric modes are in reasonable agreement with the data. The theory also predicts a similar magnetic tuning of the dielectric modes in the sub-THz frequency range as well. The dielectric modes that can be tuned with a magnetic field are of importance for the realization of low-loss tunable devices, including resonators, isolators, and phase shifters operating in the sub-THz region. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3607873]“
“Background: Redundant skin laxity is a major feature of aging. Recently, radiofrequency has been introduced for nonablative tissue tightening by volumetric heating of the deep dermis.

Among the many works of contemporary artists with epilepsy that I

Among the many works of contemporary artists with epilepsy that I have collected, a subgroup pertains to the nature of seizure experiences and associated mood disorders. Often, these images provide insights into underlying neurophysiology that are not otherwise possible to obtain through in vitro assays, animal models, psychometric instruments, or the verbal expressions of patients.

This article focuses on examples of art that may inspire neuroscientists to generate hypotheses that will further explore the underlying neurological basis to the experiential phenomena of epilepsy and complement the sophisticated studies described elsewhere in this supplement. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In the range of nanosecond pulse lengths, the mechanisms of surface laser damage to dielectric materials are still unclear. A large amount Autophagy inhibitor of experimental and theoretical work has been performed over recent years. In order to test theoretical predictions and compare experimental results, reproducibility is essential whatever the beam parameters and experimental conditions. The rasterscan procedure, previously developed to test large components, is an efficient method

that allows measuring extremely low surface damage site density (until 0.01 site/cm(2) learn more for large optics). In this paper, we show that by suitable data reduction, error bar calculation, and attention paid to beam analysis, laser-induced surface damage density of fused silica optics can be measured with high accuracy AZD1208 inhibitor and repeatability in the range of pulse durations from 2 to 16 ns. This procedure provides a straightforward means of comparing the experimental

results obtained from several facilities using different lasers.”
“Background: Tibiotalar arthritis in the young, active patient is a debilitating condition with limited treatment options. Bipolar tibiotalar fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation was conceived as a possible alternative to arthrodesis and arthroplasty. We reported our experience with bipolar ankle osteochondral allografts for the treatment of tibiotalar joint arthritis.

Methods: Between 1999 and 2008, we performed bipolar ankle allografts in eighty-eight ankles (eighty-four patients). Eighty-six ankles (eighty-two patients) had a minimum follow-up duration of two years. The mean patient age was forty-four years and 52% of the patients were male. Evaluation included frequency and type of reoperations, the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score, pain, function, and patient satisfaction. Radiographs were evaluated for graft healing, joint space narrowing, and graft collapse.

Results: The mean duration of follow-up was 5.3 years (range, two to eleven years). Thirty-six (42%) of the eighty-six ankles that had undergone allograft had further surgery since implantation.

This would be crucial for the maintenance of a germinal epitheliu

This would be crucial for the maintenance of a germinal epithelium functioning efficiently in the production

of spermatozoa.”
“Transcription Milciclib chemical structure factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences within gene promoter regions. Specificity protein (Sp) family transcription factors play a critical role in various cellular processes and have been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis. The Sp family consists of several members that contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain composed of three zinc fingers at the C-terminus and serine/threonine-and glutamine-rich transactivation domains at the N-terminal. Sp1 is elevated in several malignancies including prostate cancer and is associated with the prognosis learn more of patients. Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulate a variety of cancer associated genes that are involved in cell cycle,

proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Studies have shown that in prostate cancer, Sp1 regulates important genes like androgen receptor, TGF-beta, c-Met, fatty acid synthase, matrix metalloprotein (MT1-MMP), PSA, and alpha-integrin. These results highlight the importance of Sp1 in prostate cancer and emphasize the potential therapeutic value of targeting Sp1. Several strategies, including the use of natural and synthetic compounds, have been used to inhibit Sp1 in prostate cancer. These include polyphenol quercetin, betulinic acid, acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, tea phenols, isothiocyanates, thiazolidinediones, arsenic trioxide, and selenium. This review will describe the association of Sp1 in prostate cancer with a special emphasis on some of the agents tested to target Sp1 for the treatment of this malignancy.”
“The microstructures and magnetostrictive strains of ferromagnetic shape memory Fe-Pd-30 alloy systems with additions of Ni elements (4 at.%)

have been investigated by a magnetostriction meter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission click here electron microscopy (TEM). The research results show that the magnetostrictive strains of the Fe-66-Pd-30-Ni-4 alloys after homogenization treatment (lambda(s)(parallel to) = 79 x 10(-6)) are higher than those of the as received materials (lambda(s)(parallel to) = 55 x 10(-6)). The lower magnetostriction of the as received metal is due to segregation-impeded parts of the L1(0) twin boundary motion in realistic magnetic fields. In addition, an important discovery in this study is that doping the Fe-Pd-30 alloy system with Ni substitution for Fe seems to prevent the decomposition of L1(0) + L1(m) twin phase into stoichiometric L1(0) + L1(m) + alpha(bct) structures when the strain-forged alloys are solution treated and recrystallization annealed, and then aged at 400 degrees C for 100 hours.

Experimental results show an average overlapping error of 9 5% an

Experimental results show an average overlapping error of 9.5% and 24.1% in optic disc and optic cup segmentation, respectively. The results also show an increase in overlapping error as the reliability score is reduced, which justifies the effectiveness of the self-assessment. The segmented optic disc and optic cup are then used to compute the cup to disc ratio for glaucoma screening. Our proposed method achieves areas under curve of 0.800 and 0.822 in GSK1210151A molecular weight two data sets, which is higher than other methods. The methods can be used for segmentation and glaucoma screening. The self-assessment will be used as an indicator of cases with large errors and enhance the clinical deployment of the automatic

segmentation and screening.”
“Miscarriage, defined as spontaneous pregnancy loss at <20-28 weeks’ gestation, is a common clinical problem. Balanced chromosomal rearrangements in either parent are an important cause of repeated pregnancy P505-15 mw loss, particularly in the first trimester. In this study, chromosomal abnormalities that cause recurrent miscarriage were evaluated in Omani parents and some of their dysmorphic children. A total of 380

couples (760 individuals) with two or more recurrent miscarriages were examined for chromosomal aberrations during the period 1999-2006. For each proband the chromosomal preparations were analysed and karyotyped after applying a Giemsa-trypsin banding method. The overall incidence of chromosomal anomaly was 26 out of 760 individuals (3.42%). These abnormalities included 21 (2.8%) LY294002 in vivo structural aberrations and 5 (0.7%) numerical anomalies. In

addition to these abnormalities, 39 (5.1%) chromosomal variants were also found. The nature of these abnormalities and their relation to obstetric history are discussed. In conclusion, chromosomal abnormality is one of the causes of recurrent miscarriage. This study illustrates the incidence and distribution of chromosomal abnormalities among Omani couples with recurrent miscarriage. Cytogenetic findings could provide valuable information for genetic counselling and allow monitoring of future pregnancies by prenatal diagnosis in couples with a history of recurrent miscarriage.”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination history among women aged 18-27 years with precancerous cervical lesions diagnosed, barriers to vaccination, and timing of vaccination in relation to the abnormal cytology result that preceded the diagnosis of the cervical lesion.

METHODS: High-grade cervical lesions are reportable conditions in Connecticut for public health surveillance. Telephone interviews and medical record reviews were conducted during 2008-2010 for women (n=269) identified through the surveillance registry.

RESULTS: Overall, 43% of women reported history of one or more doses of HPV vaccine. The mean age at vaccination was 22 years.

“The present case study reports the first case of a 38-yea

“The present case study reports the first case of a 38-year-old hairdresser with irritant-associated vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) due to alkaline persulfate, who was referred on suspicion of occupational asthma. Several tests were performed, including specific inhalation challenge and upper airway endoscopy. During the specific inhalation challenge to alkaline persulfate, the patient experienced dysphonia and a non-significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second on spirometry. Upper airway endoscopy was then performed and revealed VCD. A specific inhalation challenge test is therefore essential

in cases of VCD to exclude possible Quizartinib price concomitant occupational asthma.”
“Several rheological terms were introduced to estimate the properties of cooked noodles with different starch content using tensile tests. Ring-shaped specimens were prepared by connecting both ends of the noodle strip before cooking. Hencky

GSK461364 order strain and rate, as well as true stress were applied in constant deformation tests. The elastic region on the curves of strain vs. stress was not clearly identified. Strain hardening in the subsequent plastic region was more prominent in low-starch noodles. Elongational viscosities at lower strain rates were used to differentiate noodles with different starch content, representing the dominant effect of protein content in the range of lower strain rates. In stress relaxation tests, the reciprocal of Peleg’s constant K(1) (initial decay rate) and K(2) (asymptotic level) increased and decreased respectively, with an increase in starch content. This indicated that addition of starch contributed to the noodles becoming viscous liquid rather than elastic solid.”
“Antiproliferative activity of the

ethanol extract of Atractylodes japonica rhizomes (AJEX) was investigated using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays with various cancer cell lines (HL-60, MCF-7, SK-Br-3, MDA-MB-453, HepG2, Hep3B, PC-3, LNCaP, MKN 28, MKN 45, and HT-29 cells). Gastric carcinoma cell lines were the most responsive in terms of cell proliferation. The IC(50) of MKN 28 and MKN 45 cells were 35.98 and 27.57 mu g/mL, respectively. Moreover, gastric carcinoma cells exposed to AJEX underwent apoptosis, as determined by Annexin V binding learn more assay. Compared to respective control level, exposure to the AJEX at each IC(50) concentration resulted in a remarkable increase in the shift of cell populations. Present results suggest that AJEX possess potential anticancer properties.”
“Cross contamination of foodborne virus via food utensils can be an important route of virus propagation. Bacteriophage MS2 was used as a surrogate for norovirus. The viability loss of bacteriophage MS2 attached to 4 kinds of metal surfaces was investigated at different temperatures and relative humidities (RH).

Lastly, a new early management protocol is proposed based on the

Lastly, a new early management protocol is proposed based on the current consensus criteria relating to maxillary osteonecrosis secondary to treatment with bisphosphonates, together with the adoption of new therapies supported by increased levels of evidence.”
“We report herein a rare case of peripheral-type ameloblastic fibrodentinoma (PAFD) with features of so-called “”immature dentinoma”" in the gingiva. The patient was a 51-year-old woman, who presented to our hospital complaining of mild swelling in the left upper buccal gingiva. Periapical radiography of the area did not reveal obvious bone resorption and the provisional clinical diagnosis was a benign tumor. The entire mass was excised

under general anesthesia, Etomoxir and the pathological diagnosis was PAFD according to the classification by World Health Organization. More precisely, the detail of the histological examination revealed that our case was compatible with unusual type of ameloblastic fibrodentinoma, so-called “”immature dentinoma”". The postoperative course was satisfactory and the excised area has remained free of recurrence for 5 years.”
“Takayasu’s arteritis is a granulomatous giant-cell arteritis of the aorta and its major branches. It primarily affects East Asian women in their second or third

decade of life but is well known to affect all ethnicities across the world. Given its systemic nature, Takayasu’s arteritis has multiorgan involvement, with the majority GSK923295 solubility dmso of disease morbidity related to the cardiovascular, central nervous, and renal systems. This report describes an unusual presentation of Takayasu’s arteritis in a 2A1/2-year-old boy. This this website is the first report in the literature describing the presence of both severe aortic regurgitation and diffuse coronary artery involvement in a patient so young.”
“Objective: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex

disorder with a still uncertain etiopathogenesis. A number of treatments have been used in application to BMS, though without clearly successful results. The present study compares the improvement in BMS obtained as a result of different treatment modalities in relation to the clinical characteristics of the patients.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort study was made of 115 patients with BMS (109 females and 6 males) subjected to different treatments with a view to improving the symptoms. The clinical variables examined included the duration of the disorder, the location of the burning sensation, its daily variations and relationship with meals. The parameters were measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) applied at baseline and again after two weeks of treatment.

Results: The mean patient age was 70 +/- 11.41 years, and the mean duration of the syndrome was 7.16 +/- 2.63 years. The tongue was the most frequently affected location.

MLK27 strain displayed the highest adhesion inhibition against L

MLK27 strain displayed the highest adhesion inhibition against L. monocytogenes and produced organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocin. Cell-free culture supernatants (100 mu L/mL) and bacteriocin (1,280 AU/mL) of MLK27 strain strongly inhibited viable cell counts of L. monocytogenes adhered to HT-29 cells. However, there was no inhibitory effect of pathogen adhesion by bacteriocin treated with protease and inhibition Captisol in vitro activity of pathogen adhesion was partially decreased by heat-treated bacteriocin. According to biochemical and phylogenetic analysis, MLK27

strain was identified as Lactobacillus brevis MLK27. In conclusion, our results have shown that L. brevis MLK27 has ability to establish in human gastrointestinal tract and to prevent pathogenic L. monocytogenes infections, Saracatinib cost which is able to be considered as probiotic strains.”
“Thermoformable bionanocomposites of chitin whisker-graft-polycaprolactone (CHW-g-PCL) were synthesized by initiating

the ring-opening polymerization of caprolactone monomer onto the CHW surface under microwave radiation. In this case, the “”graft from”" strategy contributed to long and dense “”plasticizing”" PCL tails onto the CHW surface as the key of thermoforming, and, therefore, Such bionanocomposites were injection-molded as the sheets with a Structure of cocontinuous phase mediated with the entanglement of grafted PCL chains. The structure and properties of the molded CHW-g-PCL sheets were investigated by FTIR, XRD, SEM, DSC, DMTA, contact angle measurement, and tensile test. With an increase of the PCL content in CHW-g-PCL, the strength and elongation as well as the hydrophobicity of the nanocomposites increased at one time. This is the first report on the thermoformable polymer-grafted nanocrystal BIIB057 derived from natural polysaccharide. Moreover, such new bionanocomposites with good mechanical performances could have great potential applications. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 28302837,

“Nafion (R)-based ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs), with ionic liquids as solvent, were fabricated by exchanging counterions to ionic liquids at room temperature. Ion exchange is performed by only immersing IPMC in a mixture of de-ionized water and ionic liquids at room temperature for 48 h. The fabricated IPMCs exhibited a bending curvature the same as or larger than that of conventional IPMCs with ionic liquids, formed by ion exchange to ionic liquids at an elevated temperature up to about 100 degrees C, and also had long-term stability in operation in air, with a fluctuation smaller than 21% in bending curvature during a 180 min operation. The effective ion exchange to ionic liquids in the present method is probably due to an increase in diffusion speed of ionic liquids into IPMC by adsorption of water in a Nafion (R) membrane.