Results: Patients were significantly impaired in all domains

\n\nResults: Patients were significantly impaired in all domains at baseline. However, cognitive performance was maintained over a year on the majority of tests. The unified

Parkinson’s disease rating scale, saccadic latency and progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale deteriorated over a year, with the latter showing the largest change. Power estimates indicate that using the progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale as an outcome measure in a clinical trial click here would require 45 patients per arm, to identify a 50% reduction in rate of decline with 80% power.\n\nConclusions: Motor, oculomotor and cognitive domains deteriorate at different rates in progressive supranuclear palsy. This may

be due to differential degeneration MK-8931 of their respective cortical-subcortical circuits, and has major implications for the selection of outcome measures in clinical trials due to wide variation in sensitivity to annual rates of decline.”
“Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic metabolomic profiling of spent embryo-culture media has been used to calculate a viability score for individual embryos. These scores have been found to correlate to the reproductive potential of cleavage-stage embryos. In this study, 137 spent blastocyst media samples were collected after single-embryo transfer and analysed by NIR spectroscopy to generate an algorithm and calculate viability scores. To blindly validate the algorithm development

process, another algorithm was trained on 47 preselected samples from clinic 1 and then used to predict the outcome of 42 samples from Selleck HIF inhibitor clinic 2. The overall pregnancy rate from the two clinical sites was 50.4%. A positive correlation (R-2 = 0.82, P = 0.03) was observed with the increasing viability score quintiles and their associated implantation rates. Cross-validation of an algorithm generated from NIR analysis of media samples at one clinical setting blindly was shown to predict implantation potential of blastocysts cultured at another clinic in a different culture media and culture volume. This study demonstrates that metabolomic profiling by NIR spectroscopic analysis of day-5 spent embryo-culture media can predict the implantation potential of blastocysts. Furthermore, this method may not be restricted to a specific set of culturing conditions. (C) 2011, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. To compare handmade and computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM)-fabricated fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) composed of a particulate filler composite. Material and methods.

Methods Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible for enr

\n\nMethods Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible for enrolment in this muldcentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial if they had STEMI, presented within 12 h after the onset of symptoms, and were undergoing primary PCI. 3602 eligible patients were randomly assigned by interactive voice response system in a 1:1 ratio to receive bivalirudin (0.75 mg/kg intravenous NVP-LDE225 ic50 bolus followed by 1.75 mg/kg per h infusion; n=1800) or heparin plus a GPI (control; 60 IU/kg intravenous bolus

followed by boluses with target activated clotting time 200-250 s; n=1802). The two primary trial endpoints were major bleeding and net adverse clinical events (NACE; consisting of major bleeding or composite major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE; death, reinfarction, target vessel revascularisation for ischaemia, or stroke]). This prespecified analysis reports data for the 1-year follow-up. Analysis was by intention to treat. Patients with missing data were censored at the time of withdrawal from the study or at last follow-up. This trial is registered with, number NCT00433966.\n\nFindings 1-year data were available for 1696 patients

in the bivalirudin group and 1702 patients in the control group. Reasons for participant dropout were loss to follow-up and withdrawal of consent. The rate of NACE was lower in the bivalirudin group than in the control group (15.6% vs 18.3%, hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.97, p=0.022), as a selleck inhibitor result of a lower rate of major bleeding in the bivalirudin group (5.8% vs 9.2%, HR 0.61, 0.48-0.78, p<0.0001). The rate of MACE was similar between groups (11.9% vs 11.9%, HR 1.00, 0.82-1.21, p=0.98). The 1-year rates of cardiac mortality (2.1% vs 3.8%, HR 0.57,

0.38-0.84, p=0.005) and all-cause mortality (3.5% vs 4.8%, HR 0.71, 0.51-0.98, p=0.037) were lower in the bivalirudin group than in the control group.\n\nInterpretation In patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, anticoagulation with bivalirudin reduced the rates of net adverse clinical events and major bleeding at 1 year compared with treatment with heparin plus a GPI. This finding has important buy GSI-IX clinical implications for the selection of optimum treatment strategies for patients with STEMI.\n\nFunding Cardiovascular Research Foundation, with unrestricted grant support from Boston Scientific Corporation and The Medicines Company.”
“Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an extremely rare, fatal, segmental premature aging syndrome caused by a mutation in LMNA that produces the farnesylated aberrant lamin A protein, progerin. This multisystem disorder causes failure to thrive and accelerated atherosclerosis leading to early death. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors have ameliorated disease phenotypes in preclinical studies. Twenty-five patients with HGPS received the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib for a minimum of 2 y.

Acupuncture stimulation at HT8, but not in the tail area, signifi

Acupuncture stimulation at HT8, but not in the tail area, significantly reduced the KA-induced seizure, neuron death, microglial and astrocyte activations,

and IL-1 beta mRNA expression in the hippocampus. The acupuncture stimulation also decreased the mRNA expression of TNF-alpha, but it was not significant. These results indicate that acupuncture at HT8 can inhibit hippocampal cell death and suppress KA-induced inflammatory events, suggesting a possible role for acupuncture in the treatment of epilepsy.”
“Delayed-type hypersensitivity represents high levels Smad inhibition of protein Ag-specific adaptive immunity induced by mycobacterial infection, and can be monitored in the Ag-challenged skin. Besides protein Ags, recent evidence has suggested that a substantial immunity directed against glycolipid Ags is also elicited in response to mycobacterial infection, but skin hypersensitivity to this class of Ags has not been fully assessed. To address

this GDC-0068 clinical trial issue directly, glycolipid-specific skin reactions were evaluated in guinea pigs infected with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Significant skin induration was observed in MAC-infected, but not mock-infected, guinea pigs, following intradermal administration of a mixture of MAC-derived glycolipids. Surprisingly, this glycolipid-specific skin response involved up-regulated expression of IL-5 mRNA in situ and marked local infiltration of eosinophils. Challenge experiments with individual glycolipid components detected an outstanding capability for trehalose dimycolate (TDM), but not a structurally related glycolipid, glucose monomycolate, to elicit the skin response. T lymphocytes derived from the spleen of MAC-infected, but not uninfected, guinea pigs specifically responded to TDM in vitro by up-regulating IL-5 transcription, and this response was not blocked by Abs that reacted to the known guinea pig group 1 CD1 proteins.

Finally, the eosinophilic skin hypersensitivity Erastin research buy to TDM was also elicited in guinea pigs vaccinated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin, which contrasted sharply with the classical delayed-type hypersensitivity response to the purified protein derivative. Therefore, the TDM-elicited eosinophilic response defines a new form of hypersensitivity in mycobacterial infection, which may account for local infiltration of eosinophils often observed at the site of infection. The Journal of Immunology, 2008, 181: 8528-8533.”
“Previous reports on the prognostic value of diabetes mellitus for cardiac complications after vascular surgery show divergent results, especially in regards to the role of type 2 diabetes as a cardiac risk factor, which remains unclear.

Specific emphasis is given to recent research on the production o

Specific emphasis is given to recent research on the production of plant-produced vaccines toward human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, tuberculosis,

hepatitis B virus, Ebola virus, human papillomavirus, rabies virus and common diarrheal diseases. Production platforms used to express vaccines in plants, including nuclear and chloroplast transformation, and the use of viral expression vectors, are described in this review. The review concludes by outlining the next steps for plant-produced vaccines to achieve their goal of providing safe, efficacious and inexpensive vaccines to the developing world.”
“Espin is a multifunctional actin-bundling protein with multiple isoforms, and has special connections to hair cell stereocilia and microvillar specializations of sensory cells in the inner ear. Quizartinib However, there have been no reports showing the expression and function of Espin in cancers, including melanoma. Here, it is demonstrated that Espin expression is significantly increased in melanomas that spontaneously developed in RET-transgenic mice (RET-mice). Importantly, the invasion capacity of Espin-depleted Mel-ret melanoma cells derived from a tumor of the RET-mouse was dramatically less than that of control melanoma cells with reductions of lamellipodia, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and GTP-Rac1 activities. Correspondingly, the ratio of metastatic GSK461364 research buy foci in Espin-depleted

Mel-ret melanoma cells was significantly less than that of control melanoma cells in an in vivo melanoma metastasis model. Moreover, Espin could be a novel biomarker of melanoma in humans, because our immunohistochemical analysis data reveal that percentages of Espin-positive cells in human primary and metastatic melanomas were significantly higher than that of cells in melanocytic nevi. Together, these results indicate that Espin is not only a metastatic regulator for melanoma but also a potential biomarker of disease progression. (C)2013 AACR.”
“Objectives: To assess the impact of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) national coverage determination (NCD) on access for patients

with aortic stenosis (AS) with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in a tertiary care center. Background: TAVR has given hope to patients with AS who are deemed inoperable. The effects of the NCD on access to patients with AS has not been evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total of 94 inoperable AS patients were evaluated and treated from December 2011 through June of 2012 with TAVR. Patients who underwent transfemoral (TF) vs. non-TF access were compared. The CMS NCD was released on May 1, 2012 and on July 1, 2012, the nontransfemoral access program was put on hold due to lack of reimbursement. Results: Patients in the TF (n = 33) and non-TF access (n = 61) groups were similar in age (85.2 +/- 6.3 vs. 84.8 +/- 6.6 P = 0.

07 to 1 91, p = 0 0172); the effect size for the rare rs3798220 v

07 to 1.91, p = 0.0172); the effect size for the rare rs3798220 variant was similar (dominant OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.67, p = 0.20), but power was limited to demonstrate significance. The combined genotype explained only a small percentage (<= 4%) of variability in Lp(a) cholesterol and prevalence of angiographic CAD. In conclusion, heritable contributions learn more of LPA rs10455872 and rs3798220 to Lp(a) cholesterol levels and to angiographic CAD were prospectively assessed in this study. The percentage of intersubject variability in Lp(a) cholesterol and the percentage of prevalent CAD explained

were small. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective-Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal CX-6258 vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive.\n\nMethods and Results-In the present study, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in SMC proliferation and neointimal remodeling. We demonstrate that mitogens induce transcription

of HDAC 1, 2, and 3 in SMC. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either HDAC 1, 2, or 3 and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC prevented mitogen-induced SMC proliferation. The mechanisms underlying this reduction of SMC proliferation by HDAC inhibition involve a growth arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle that is due to BVD-523 cost an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. HDAC inhibition resulted in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip). Furthermore, HDAC inhibition repressed mitogen-induced

cyclin D1 mRNA expression and cyclin D1 promoter activity. As a result of this differential cell cycle-regulatory gene expression by HDAC inhibition, the retinoblastoma protein retains a transcriptional repression of its downstream target genes required for S phase entry. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating that HDAC inhibition decreased neointima formation and expression of cyclin D1 in a murine model of vascular injury.\n\nConclusion-These findings identify HDAC as a critical component of a transcriptional cascade regulating SMC proliferation and suggest that HDAC might play a pivotal role in the development of proliferative vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:851-860.)”
“Synchronous neurotransmission is triggered when Ca(2+) binds to synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), a synaptic-vesicle protein that interacts with SNAREs and membranes.

Moreover, in a mouse xenograft model, 5 nmol/kg p,p’-DDT resulted

Moreover, in a mouse xenograft model, 5 nmol/kg p,p’-DDT resulted in increased tumor size, oxidative stress and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results indicated that low concentrations of p,p’-DDT promoted colorectal cancer growth through Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, which was mediated by oxidative stress. The finding suggests an association between low concentrations of p,p’-DDT exposure and colorectal cancer progression. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To determine if newer influenza vaccines can safely

improve seroprotection rates of older adults, we compared three licensed trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs) in a randomized, Selleck Vactosertib controlled trial with evaluator blinding. Participants were non-frail adults bigger than = 65 y old, annually TIV-immunized. Study vaccines included intradermal (IDV), MF59-adjuvanted (ADV) and subunit (TIV) formulations

of equal BLZ945 in vivo potency and strain composition. Blood was obtained before vaccination (V1) and 21 (V2) and 180 d (V3) afterward and tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. Safety diaries were completed daily by participants and specific tolerability questions were posed regarding injections and symptoms. In total, 911 participants were immunized and 887 (97.4%) completed V3. Groups had similar demographics. General symptom rates post-vaccination were similar among groups.

Rates of injection site redness after IDV/ADV/TIV were 75%/13%/13% and rates of pain were 29%/38%/20%, respectively, but each vaccine was well tolerated, with symptoms causing little bother. Baseline antibody titers did not differ significantly among groups but B/Brisbane titers were too high for meaningful response assessments. At V2, seroprotection Sapanisertib in vivo rates (HAI titer bigger than = 40) were highest after ADV, the rate advantage over IDV and TIV being significant at 11.8% and 11.4% for H3N2 and 10.2% and 12.5% for H1N1, respectively. At day 180, seroprotection rates had declined similar to 25% and no longer differed significantly among groups. While IDV and TIV were also well tolerated, ADV induced modestly higher antibody titers in seniors to influenza A strains at 3 weeks but not 6 months post-vaccination. Immune responses to IDV and TIV were similar in this population.”
“IL-15 has pivotal roles in the control of CD8(+) memory T cells and has been investigated as a therapeutic option in cancer therapy. Although IL-15 and IL-2 share many functions together, including the stimulation of CD8 T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production, the different in vivo roles of IL-15 and IL-2 have been increasingly recognized. Here, we explored the different effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells from resected breast tumors.

Metastases to the skin or subcutaneous tissue are rare Here we p

Metastases to the skin or subcutaneous tissue are rare. Here we present a 49-year-old female patient with solitary scalp metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma FTC which was revealed with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. PET showed flourodeoxiglucose avid lesion in the left vertex scalp. Scalp lesion was removed totally and histopathological examination revealed well-differentiated

thyroid cancer metastasis.”
“Though recent P005091 studies have reported the importance of several endogenous cytoprotective factors including heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) that protect intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from the effects of stress and injury, the exact mechanism of HSP70 underlying

LY294002 cytoprotection against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced IEC injury remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms by which HSP70 protected IECs against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and focused on the effects of HSP70 on IEC apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Recombinant adenoviruses (Ad-HSP70) were transfected into the intestinal epithelial cell line in vitro and then suffered from 90 min of hypoxia followed by 60 min of reoxygenation. The LDH leaking, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m) were evaluated after hypoxia/reoxygenation. The expression of HSP70, cytochrome c and Bcl-2 protein was determined by Western blot or immunofluorescence analysis. The results show that HSP70 protein was highly expressed in the IECs at 48

h following Ad-HSP70 HDAC inhibitor transfection. HSP70 overexpression could reduce LDH leakage and cell apoptosis in IECs following hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Furthermore, the overexpression of HSP70 significantly reversed the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in IECs during hypoxia/reoxygenation. HSP70 overexpression was also associated with the increasing expression of Bcl-2 protein in IECs during hypoxia/reoxygenation. We conclude that HSP70 protects IECs against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced apoptosis through increasing Bcl-2 expression, which in turn could inhibit the mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway that involves the disruption of the Delta Psi m and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This work reports the physico-chemical characterisation of the micellar structures formed by a saponin fraction obtained from an important South American species, Ilex paraguariensis (mate). The mate saponin-enriched fraction (MSF) mainly comprises triterpenic glycosides and was obtained from mate green fruits through solid-phase extraction.

All referrals (aged 1435 years) to the diagnostic center in Amste

All referrals (aged 1435 years) to the diagnostic center in Amsterdam were also assessed with the CAARMS. Results: The screening detected a three-fold higher prevalence of at-risk mental states: these subjects were older and more often female. manova showed significantly higher scores for the screened population on depression, social anxiety, distress with positive symptoms, and a higher rate of transition to psychosis within 12 months. Conclusion: The screening method detects more patients with at-risk mental states than the referral method. The latter method is biased to young male patients in an earlier

prodromal stage and a lower transition rate.”
“Purpose Fever occurring in a neutropenic patient remains Cilengitide in vivo a common life-threatening complication of cancer chemotherapy, and febrile neutropenia (FN) is recognized as a dose-limiting factor (DLF) in cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significant covariate associated with the risk of FN occurrence in Japanese patients.\n\nMethods A stepwise logistic regression was conducted using data from Japanese cancer patients treated with docetaxel. Based on those results, an equation was established which predicts the probability of FN occurrence.\n\nResults From the result of a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, performance status factor (PS*), which is set to 1 if performance status factor

is 2 or 3, and to 0 otherwise Small molecule library and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) were selected as covariates significantly associated (p < 0.05) with FN occurrence. The obtained equation to predict the probability (P) of docetaxel-induced FN occurrence is P = 1/[1 + exp-(1.29 x AUC + 1.41 x PS* -3.52)]. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the best cut-off value of FN probability to differentiate between the presence and absence of FN was 0.61.\n\nConclusions An equation was developed to predict the probability of FN occurrence for Japanese patients treated with docetaxel. It was found that FN may not occur when the probability

of FN occurrence calculated by the predictive equation is less than 0.61. BIX 01294 in vitro Therefore, the predictive equation for FN occurrence may be used for selecting the appropriate dose to avoid the occurrence of FN.”
“Objectives-We aimed to determine whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) on chromosome 9p21 were associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese Han population.\n\nMethods and Results-We determined the genotypes of rs2383206 and rs2383207 on chromosome 9p21 in 1360 CHD patients and 1360 age-and sex-frequency-matched controls from an unrelated Chinese Han population. GG genotypes in rs2383207 occurred more frequently in CHD patients compared to controls, and the odds ratio ( OR) was 1.52 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.04), after adjusting for conventional risk factors.

“1 Increasingly, ecologists are using functional and phyl

“1. Increasingly, ecologists are using functional and phylogenetic approaches to quantify the relative importance of stochastic, abiotic filtering and biotic filtering processes shaping the pattern of species co-occurrence. A remaining challenge in functional and phylogenetic analyses of tropical tree communities is to successfully integrate the functional and phylogenetic structure Trichostatin A mw of tree communities across spatial and size scales and habitats in a single analysis.\n\n2. We analysed the functional and phylogenetic structure of tree assemblages in a 20-ha tropical forest dynamics plot in south-west China. Because the

influence of biotic interactions may become more apparent as cohorts age, on local scales, and in resource-rich environments, we perform our analyses across three size classes, six spatial scales and six distinct habitat types, using 10 plant functional traits and a molecular phylogeny for the >400 tree taxa found in the plot.\n\n3. All traits, except leaf area and stem-specific resistance, had significant, albeit weak phylogenetic signal. For canopy species, phylogenetic clustering in small and medium size classes turned to phylogenetic overdispersion in the largest size

class and this change in dispersion with size was found in each habitat type and across all spatial scales. On fine spatial scales, functional Wnt inhibitor dispersion changed from clustering to overdispersion with increasing size classes. However, on larger spatial scales assemblages were functionally clustered for

all size classes and habitats.\n\n4. Phylogenetic and functional structure across Cl-amidine research buy spatial and size scales and habitats gave strong support for a deterministic model of species co-occurrence rather than for a neutral model. The results also support the hypothesis that abiotic determinism is more important at larger scales, while biotic determinism is more important on smaller scales within habitats.”
“Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) Amyloidosis is a condition whereby misfolded proteins generated by plasma cells deposit in tissues causing organ dysfunction. Chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant when eligible are standard treatment options. Several studies report long-term outcomes of patients post-transplant. However, there is a paucity of literature describing outcomes of relapsed patients post-transplant. We performed a retrospective study to assess outcomes and therapies employed upon relapse after transplant. Between 1996 and 2009, 410 patients received transplant at the Mayo Clinic as first-line therapy. Of those patients, 42 (10%) died within 3months of transplant, 64 (16%) died without documented relapse, 158 (38%) were alive without documented progression, and 146 (36%) had documented progression. Those 146 patients are the subject of our study, and their median time to hematologic relapse/progression was 23.6months (95%CI 18.3, 26.3months).

A wealth of data now demonstrate that the microglia


A wealth of data now demonstrate that the microglia

have very diverse effector functions, in line with macrophage Populations in other organs. The term activated microglia needs to be qualified to reflect the distinct and very different states of activation-associated effector functions in different disease states. Manipulating the effector functions of microglia has the potential to modify the outcome of diverse neurological diseases.”
“AimThis study aims to evaluate adherence to a clinical guideline for screening and prevention of neonatal hypoglycaemia on the post-natal wards.\n\nMethodsRetrospective chart review of 581 healthy term neonates born at a tertiary maternity hospital. Indications for hypoglycaemia screening included small for gestational age this website (SGA), infants of diabetic mothers (IDM; gestational, Type 1 or 2), symptomatic hypoglycaemia, macrosomia and wasted (undernourished) appearance. Outcomes HKI-272 chemical structure were protocol entry and adherence with hypoglycaemia prevention strategies including early and frequent feeding and timely blood glucose measurement.\n\nResultsOf 115 neonates screened for hypoglycaemia,

67 were IDM, 19 were SGA (including two both IDM and SGA), and two were macrosomic. One IDM and one SGA were not screened. Twenty-two neonates were screened for a reason not identifiable from the medical record, and 13 neonates were SGA by a definition different see more to the guideline definition, including five who were also IDM. Guideline adherence was variable. Few neonates (41 of 106, 39%) were fed in the first post-natal hour, and blood glucose measurement occurred later than recommended for 41 of 106 (39%) of neonates.\n\nConclusionsMost IDM and SGA neonates were screened. While guideline adherence

overall was comparable with other studies, neonates were fed late. We recommend staff education about benefits of early (within the first hour) frequent breastfeeding for neonates at risk.”
“Spatial neglect can be characterized by a “magnetic attraction” towards the right side of a visual stimulus array and a selection of stimuli from that hemispace. This study examined whether these distinctive characteristics in visuo-motor space are also evident in representational number space. Given that numbers are thought to be represented along a left-to-right oriented mental number line, an affinity for the spontaneous selection of larger numbers was anticipated for neglect patients. Contrary to this expectation, neglect patients (n = 20) picked a similar range of numbers compared to controls (n = 17) when generating a number between 1000 and 10 000 and when playing an imaginary lottery game.