In the immature state, the DC is adept in surveying the periphery

In the immature state, the DC is adept in surveying the periphery, acquiring and storing antigen, but has a limited capacity for direct T-cell activation. During a brief and defined window of time following DC stimulation, nearly every aspect of antigen handling changes, as it transitions from an entity focused on protein preservation to GNS-1480 research buy one capable of efficient cross-presentation. It is this time period and the underlying molecular mechanisms

active here, which form the core of our studies on cross-presentation.”
“Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gut-brain peptide has been described to be able to induce mitosis according to recent studies. Additionally, conflicting data has been published on whether tumours of the central and peripheral nervous system in general, and gliomas in particular, express CCK receptors. In the present in vitro study we employed reverse transcription followed by the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to investigate whether mRNA for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors as well as CCK peptide itself is present in primary human gliomas and the U-87 MG GBM cell line. The data show that 14/14 (100%) of the primary gliomas exhibited mRNA expression for the CCK peptide gene and the B receptor including the U-87 MG cells, whereas, only 2/14 SRT2104 (14%) showed presence of the CCK-A receptor. The presence of CCK receptors together with CCK peptide

expression itself suggests presence of an autocrine loop controlling glioma cell growth. In support of this conclusion, a neutralizing antibody against the CCK peptide exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of cell growth whereas, antagonists to CCK caused a dose depend inhibition of exogenous stimulated glioma cell growth in vitro, via the CCK-B receptor which is PKC activated. Assessment of apoptosis and proteasome activity were undertaken and we

report that treatment with CCK antagonists decreased proteasome and increased caspase-3 activity. These data indicate that CCK peptide and CCK-B are abundant in human gliomas and they act to stimulate cell growth in an autocrine manner, primarily via the high affinity CCK-B receptor, which was blocked by antagonists to CCK, perhaps via apoptosis. (c) Selleckchem PRT062607 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Increased force variability constitutes a hallmark of arm disabilities following stroke. Force variability is related to the modulation of force below 1 Hz in healthy young and older adults. However, whether the increased force variability observed post stroke is related to the modulation of force below 1 Hz remains unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare force modulation below 1 Hz in chronic stroke and age-matched healthy individuals. Both stroke and control individuals (N = 26) performed an isometric grip task to submaximal force levels.

Various polymeric aggregates had great potential as controlled de

Various polymeric aggregates had great potential as controlled delivery vehicles SB203580 research buy due to their reasonable drug loading efficiency and stimuli-adjustable drug release properties. As compared with dually sensitive micelles formed from a single star, triply stimuli-responsive coaggregates may be more promising as controlled delivery vehicles

since the drug release properties can be potentially adjusted by various external stimuli and composition of star mixtures.”
“Efficient callusing and regeneration efficiencies and development of reliable regeneration system are prerequisite for improvement of wheat through recombinant DNA technology. Tissue culture responses of wheat are genotypic, media composition and their interaction dependent. Immature embryos of seven elite wheat cultivars were subjected to in vitro culture processes to select for most appropriate cultivar for tissue culture responses by using auxins and cytokinins one at a time in solidified MS medium. Callus formation and regeneration varied significantly among varieties and among phytohormone concentrations. The interaction of phytohormones and cultivars for callus induction and regeneration was significant

and was found to be genotypic and media dependent. Cultivars AS-2002 (92.75%) and GA-2002 (91.25%) produced maximum number of calli on induction media comprising 4 mg/l 2,4-D; while, cv. Chakwal-50 performed best at 6 mg/l 2,4-D (91.75%). The least callusing was FDA-approved Drug Library witnessed for cv. Sahar-2006 with 2 mg/l of 2,4-D. Induction media comprising 2 mg/l 2,4-D was found inappropriate for all the cultivars except Inqilab-91. None of the cultivars could produce callus at basal MS medium. Independency of regeneration and callusing was observed with maximum regeneration potential of 41.19% for cv. GA-2002 on regeneration medium comprising 1.0 mg/l kinetin. The least regeneration (12.75%) was recorded for cv. Shafaq-2006 on regeneration medium supplemented with 2 mg/l kinetin. A proficient and reliable in vitro regeneration system was successfully established for most tissue culture responsive

genotype ‘GA-2002′ and its regeneration was increased from 38.81% to 63.69% by supplementing 0.2 mg/l IAA, 0.5 mg/l Kn and 0.5 AZD8931 mg/l of BAP in regeneration medium. Regeneration frequency of GA-2002 achieved from control (1.0 mg/l kinetin) was improved up to 64.09%. An efficient protocol was developed for rapid screening of tissue culture responsive genotype; and establishment of high frequency regeneration system of wheat rarely reported earlier.”
“This study examined the phylogenetic relationship of strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) collected from Parana State, Brazil, based on the hemagglutinin gene. Urine samples were collected from 4 dogs from northern Parana State that demonstrated clinical manifestations of canine distemper.

Both tasks activated bilateral superior/inferior parietal cortex,

Both tasks activated bilateral superior/inferior parietal cortex, superior temporal cortex, and left precentral cortex. Furthermore, an interaction between prosody and congruence was observed in bilateral inferior parietal regions: for incongruent sentences, but not for congruent ones, there was a larger activation if the incongruent word carried a pitch accent, than if Fedratinib it did not. The common activations

between the language task and the spatial attention task demonstrate that pitch accent activates a domain general attention network, which is sensitive to semantic/pragmatic aspects of language. Therefore, attention and language comprehension are highly interactive.”
“Increasing evidence supports that OS plays important roles in diabetes mellitus and cerebral ischemia. This suggests that recovering

an impaired endogenous this website superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme system induced by OS with a mimetic would be beneficial and protective for these diseases. In present study, one nonpeptidyl small molecular weight compound (D34) was synthesized. Its SOD mimetic activity and the potential therapeutic actions were also evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay indicated that D34 presents an SOD mimetic activity. D34 (20 mu mol/kg) exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan-diabetic mice. D34 could also ameliorate the cerebral neuronal death in hippocampus of global cerebral ischemia mice. Furthermore, the D34 treatment significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and increased SOD activities in brains or livers of diabetes mice or cerebral ischemic mice. In conclusion, Selleck Baf-A1 these preliminary findings support that D34 exhibits SOD mimetic activity and possesses significant antihyperglycemic and neuroprotective effects. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Invasive interfaces with the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), which currently rely on electric means for both nerves stimulation and

signals recording, are needed in a number of applications, including prosthetics and assistive technologies. Recent studies showed that the quality of the signal-to-noise ratio of the afferent channel might be negatively affected by physiological reactions, including fibrosis. In this paper we propose a novel approach to the development of implantable neural interfaces, where the PNS is excited electromagnetically and in situ, while electrical means are used only for neural signals recording. Electromagnetic (EM) waves, capable of overcoming fibrotic capsules, are generated by microfabricated coils. Stimulation coils and registration electrodes are deposited on the same flexible substrate, also provided with a bio-absorbable coating, which releases anti-fibrotic drugs and neurons-specific functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs are intended to improve the capability of local EM waves to elicit membranes depolarization, thus enhancing selectivity.

In rat EAM and AMI hearts, hepcidin was expressed in cardiomyocyt

In rat EAM and AMI hearts, hepcidin was expressed in cardiomyocytes; ferroportin, which is a cellular iron exporter bound by hepcidin, was also expressed in various cells. Analysis of the time course of the hepcidin to cytochrome oxidase subunit 6a (Cox6a)2 expression ratio showed that it abruptly increased more than 100-fold in hearts in the very early phase of EAM and in infarcted areas 1 day after MI. The hepcidin/Cox6a2 expression ratio correlated significantly with that of interleukin-6/gamma-actin in both EAM and AMI hearts (r=0.781.

P<0001 and r=0.563, P=.0003). In human hearts with histological myocarditis, the ratio was significantly higher than in those without EPZ-6438 purchase myocarditis (0.0400 +/- 0.0195 versus 0.0032 +/- 0.0017, P=.0045). Hepcidin is strongly induced in cardiomyocytes under myocarditis and MI, conditions in which inflammatory cytokine levels increase and may play an important role in iron homeostasis and free radical generation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Modafinil is a non-amphetaminic psychostimulant used therapeutically for sleep and psychiatric disorders. However, some studies indicate that

modafinil can have addictive properties. The present study examined whether modafinil can produce behavioral sensitization in mice, an experience and drug-dependent behavioral adaptation, and if individual differences play a role in this process. We further tested context-related factors and cross-sensitization between modafinil and methamphetamine. Important individual differences in the behavioral sensitization of Swiss Albino mice were observed after repeated administration of 50 mg/kg modafinil (Experiment 1), or 1 mg/kg methamphetamine (Experiment

2). Only mice classified as sensitized subgroup developed clear behavioral sensitization to the drugs. After a withdrawal period, mice received challenges of modafinil (Experiment 1), or methamphetamine (Experiment 2) and locomotor activity was evaluated in the activity cages (previous context) and in the open field arena (new context) in order to evaluate the context dependency of behavioral sensitization. The expression of sensitization to modafinil, but not to methamphetamine, SF 1101 was affected by contextual testing conditions, since modafinil-sensitized mice only expressed sensitization in the activity cage, but not in the open field. Subsequently, locomotor cross-sensitization between methamphetamine and modafinil was assessed by challenging modafinil-pretreated mice with 1 mg/kg methamphetamine (Experiment 1), and methamphetamine-pretreated mice with 50 mg/kg modafinil (Experiment 2). We observed a symmetrical cross-sensitization between the drugs only in those mice that were classified as sensitized subgroup. Our findings indicate that repeated exposure to modafinil induces behavioral sensitization only in some animals by similar neurobiological, but not contextual, mechanisms to those.

“This study describes an improved one-pot, four-step synth

“This study describes an improved one-pot, four-step synthesis of a new series of 1-aryl-3-trifluoroacetyl

pyrroles from the reaction of 3-trifluoroacetyl-4,5-dihydrofuran with arylamines, giving 1,1,1-trifluoro-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-arylamino-3-buten-2ones, which were directly submitted to Swern oxidation to furnish 1,1,1-trifluoro-3-(2-ethanal)-4-arylamino-3-buten-2-ones. Subsequent intramolecular cyclization Selleck Rabusertib of the corresponding enaminoaldehydes followed by aromatization rendered the title compounds in a 30 to 56% overall yield.”
“Purpose: Achieving accurate optical-CT 3D dosimetry without the use of viscous refractive index (RI) matching fluids would greatly increase convenience.\n\nMethods: Software has been developed to simulate optical-CT 3D dosimetry for a range of scanning configurations including parallel-beam, point, and converging light sources. For each configuration the efficacy of three refractive media was investigated: air, water, a fluid closely matched to PRESAGE ubiquitin-Proteasome degradation (R), and perfect matching (RI = 1.00, 1.33, 1.49, and 1.501 respectively). Reconstructions were performed using both filtered backprojection (FBP) and algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). The efficacy of the three configurations and the two algorithms was evaluated by calculating the usable radius (i.e., the outermost radius where data were accurate to within 2%),

and gamma (Gamma) analysis. This definition recognizes that for optical-CT imaging, errors are greatest near the edge of the dosimeter, where refraction can be most pronounced. Simulations

were performed on three types of dose distribution: uniform, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and brachytherapy (Cs-137).\n\nResults: For a uniformly irradiated dosimeter the usable radius achieved with filtered backprojection was 68% for water-matching and 31% for dry-scanning in air. Algebraic reconstruction gave usable radii Pexidartinib manufacturer of 99% for both water and air (dry-scanning), indicating greater recovery of useful data for the uniform distribution. FBP and ART performed equally well for a VMAT dose distribution where less dose is delivered near the edge of the dosimeter. In this case, the usable radius was 86% and 53% for scanning in water and air, respectively. For brachytherapy, the usable radius was 99% and 98% for scanning in water and air, respectively using FBP, and a major decrease was seen with ART. Point source geometry provided 1%-2% larger usable radii than parallel geometry. Converging geometry recovered less usable dosimetry data (up to 10% reduced usable radii) than point and parallel geometries. A further disadvantage of converging geometry was an increased requirement on detector size by up to 18 degrees.\n\nConclusions: For applications where dose information is not required in the periphery of the dosimeter, some dry and low-viscous matching configurations may be feasible.

Themes were “experiences with the physical manifestations of weig

Themes were “experiences with the physical manifestations of weight loss or gain,” “psychological effects,” “self-management,” and “social consequences.” Conclusion: This study confirms that weight changes have far more complicated

implications for patients with cancer, extending beyond physical problems into psychosocial issues. Changes are a constant reminder of the diagnosis and treatment and are persistent across all stages. Implications for Practice: These findings highlight the importance of nutritional psychosocial rehabilitation programs during the cancer trajectory.”
“The spatial context SC79 cell line in which seed predation occurs may modify the spatial structure of recruitment generated by seed dispersal. The Janzen-Connell (J-C) model predicts that granivores will exert greater pressure on the parent plant or at those sites where the density of dispersed seeds is higher. We have investigated how the probability

of post-dispersal survival of Juglans australis varies with nut density across a hierarchy of spatial scales. We experimentally evaluated the survival of 3,120 nuts at three spatial scales: meso-scale (a parts per thousand currency sign1.5 ha), as forest sites with two densities of fruiting J. australis individuals; intermediate scale (< 0.2 ha), as individual trees with two experimental DAPT crop sizes; small scale (< 0.1 m(2)), as microsites with two factors (number of nuts and distance from source). Nut removal coincided with seed predation, a condition that allowed us to test the density-dependent seed predation hypothesis. We found that the probability of nut survival was greater at forest sites with higher J. australis density. Nut survival was not affected by nut density in the seed shadow of individual specimens: at sites where J. australis density was greater, the proportion of surviving nuts did not differ between microsites located at different distances from the parent

plant, but it was greater at microsites with greater initial nut density. Nut survival depended on the scale at which rodents responded to nut density, being negatively density dependent at the meso-scale and spatially random at intermediate and small scales. At the meso-scale, excess nut supply increased the probability of nut survival, CHIR-99021 clinical trial which is in agreement with a model of granivore satiation near the seed source. Rodent satiation at the meso-scale may favour maintenance of sites with high J. australis density, where individual trees may have greater probabilities of passing their genes onto the next stage of the dispersal cycle.”
“A physician performs two tasks: making diagnoses and determining treatments. To reduce medical error, junior doctors are supposed to consult their supervisors when they face uncommon circumstances. However, recent research shows that junior doctors are reluctant to do so.

Both right and left piriform cortex local field potential activit

Both right and left piriform cortex local field potential activities were recorded. The results obtained demonstrate a robust

interhemispheric asymmetry in anterior piriform cortex activity that emerges during specific stages of odour discrimination learning, Ion Channel Ligand Library in vitro with a transient bias toward the left hemisphere. This asymmetry is not apparent during error trials. Furthermore, functional connectivity (coherence) between the bilateral anterior piriform cortices is learning- and context-dependent. Steady-state interhemispheric anterior piriform cortex coherence is reduced during the initial stages of learning and then recovers as animals acquire competent performance. The decrease in coherence is seen relative to bilateral coherence expressed in the home cage, which remains stable across conditioning days. Similarly, transient, trial-related interhemispheric coherence increases with task competence. Taken together, the results demonstrate transient asymmetry in piriform cortical function

during odour discrimination learning until mastery, suggesting that each piriform cortex may contribute something unique to odour memory.”
“The catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA-C) is subject to several post- or cotranslational modifications that regulate its activity both spatially check details and this website temporally. Among those, N-myristoylation increases the kinase affinity for membranes and might also be implicated in substrate recognition and allosteric regulation. Here, we investigated the effects of N-myristoylation

on the structure, dynamics, and conformational equilibrium of PKA-C using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the myristoyl group inserts into the hydrophobic pocket and leads to a tighter packing of the A-helix against the core of the enzyme. As a result, the conformational dynamics of the A-helix are reduced and its motions are more coupled with the active site. Our simulations suggest that cation-pi interactions among W30, R190, and R93 are responsible for coupling these motions. Two major conformations of the myristoylated N-terminus are the most populated: a long loop (LL conformation), similar to Protein Data Bank (PDB) entry 1CMK, and a helix-turn-helix structure (HTH conformation), similar to PDB entry 4DFX, which shows stronger coupling between the conformational dynamics observed at the A-helix and active site. The HTH conformation is stabilized by S10 phosphorylation of the kinase via ionic interactions between the protonated amine of K7 and the phosphate group on S10, further enhancing the dynamic coupling to the active site. These results support a role of N-myristoylation in the allosteric regulation of PKA-C.

Intact ERKO beta mice had both striatal transporters levels lower

Intact ERKO beta mice had both striatal transporters levels lower than WT and ERKO alpha mice. Wnt inhibitor MPTP caused a dose-dependant loss of both striatal transporters that correlated with striatal DA concentrations. Compared to WT and ERKO beta mice, ERKO alpha mice DAT, VMAT2 and TH were affected at lower MPTP doses. In the striatum and SN, ERKO alpha mice were more vulnerable and 17 beta-estradiol

protected against MPTP toxicity only in WT mice. ERKO alpha mice blood plasma had higher levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and 3 beta-diol compared to the plasma of WT and ERKO beta mice. 17 beta-estradiol treatment increased estradiol plasma levels in all genotypes. Striatal DA concentrations and SN TH mRNA correlated inversely with plasma testosterone and 3 beta-diol levels. Hence, in male mice the lack Cl-amidine price of ER alpha or ER beta altered their basal plasma steroid levels and both striatal DA transporters as well as their susceptibility to MPTP toxicity. (C)

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes are the major cause of cervical cancer. Hence, HPV genotype detection is a helpful preventive measure to combat cervical cancer. Recently, several HPV detection methods have been developed, each with different sensitivities and specificities. The objective of this study was to compare HPV high risk genotype detection by an electrochemical DNA chip system, a line probe assay (INNO-LiPA) and sequencing of the L1, E1 regions. A total of 361 cervical smears with different cytological findings were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-sequencing and electrochemical DNA chip assessment. Multiple infections were found in 21.9% (79/361) of the specimens, most prevalently in 20-29-year olds while the highest

prevalence of HPV infection was found in the 30-39-year age group. The most prevalent genotype was HPV 16 at 28.2% (138/489) followed by HPV 52 at 9.6% (47/489), with the other types occurring at less than 9.0%. The electrochemical DNA chip results were compared with INNO-LiPA and sequencing (E1 and L1 regions) based on random selection of 273 specimens. The results obtained by the three methods were in agreement except for three cases. Direct ZD1839 ic50 sequencing detected only one predominant genotype including low risk HPV genotypes. INNO-LiPA identified multiple infections with various specific genotypes including some unclassified-risk genotypes. The electrochemical DNA chip was highly accurate, suitable for detection of single and multiple infections, allowed rapid detection, was less time-consuming and was easier to perform when compared with the other methods. It is concluded that for clinical and epidemiological studies, all genotyping methods are perfectly suitable and provide comparable results.”
“Purpose. – 5-fluoro-uracil (FU) is a common agent in postoperative chemoradiation in gastric adenocarcinoma. However, FU is not well tolerated in a significant proportion of patients.

“The influence of physical aging on the beta relaxation in

“The influence of physical aging on the beta relaxation in La60Ni15Al25 bulk metallic glass has been investigated by mechanical spectroscopy. The amplitude of the beta relaxation (Delta G”) decreases while its relaxation Elafibranor clinical trial time (tau(beta)) increases during aging. We find that, as in organic glasses, the changes of ln (tau(beta)) and ln (Delta G(max)) are linearly correlated with ln (tau(beta)) = b -a ln (G”(max)).

This behavior is discussed in term of the asymmetric double-well potential (ADWP) model, with U and Delta the energies characterizing the ADWP. It is suggested that during aging the ratio U/Delta remains approximately constant, with a value close to the coefficient describing the linear correlation between ln (tau(beta)) and ln (G”(max))(U/Delta similar to a). Moreover, the PLX4032 MAPK inhibitor evolution versus aging time of Delta G(max) can be described by a simple stretched exponential equation giving values of tau(aging)

consistent with tan(delta) measurements during aging. The very similar behavior of the beta relaxation during aging in metallic glasses and organic material strongly suggests a common nature for this relaxation. (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“PII proteins are signal transduction that sense cellular nitrogen status and relay this signals to other targets. Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen fixing bacterium, which associates with grasses and cereals promoting beneficial effects on plant growth and crop yields. A. brasilense contains two PII encoding genes, named glnB and glnZ. In this paper, glnB was mutagenised in order to identify amino acid residues involved in GlnB signaling. Two variants were obtained by random mutagenesis, GlnBL13P and GlnBV100A and a site directed mutant, GlnBY51F, was obtained. Their ability to complement nitrogenase activity of glnB mutant strains of A. brasilense were determined. The variant

proteins were also overexpressed in Escherichia call, selleck chemicals purified and characterized biochemically. None of the GlnB variant forms was able to restore nitrogenase activity in glnB mutant strains of A. brasilense LFH3 and 7628. The purified GlnBY51F and GlnBL13P proteins could not be uridylylated by GlnD, whereas GlnBV100A was uridylylated but at only 20% of the rate for wild type GlnB. Biochemical and computational analyses suggest that residue Leu13, located in the alpha helix 1 of GlnB, is important to maintain GlnB trimeric structure and function. The substitution V100A led to a lower affinity for ATP binding. Together the results suggest that NifA activation requires uridylylated GlnB bound to ATP. (C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To investigate the spontaneous pregnancy reduction (SPR) rate, SPR-related factors and the effects of SPR on pregnancy outcomes in the patients with multiple pregnancies undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET).

Further, a morphology

Further, a morphology CA4P manufacturer graph is constituted with vertices as elements of morphology set and edges specifying conditions for transformations between morphologies. These conditions form a polyhedral cone, which will be called a morphology domain, in the

space of h-vectors. The dynamics of crystal morphology is given by the trajectories of the h-vector inside this morphology domain. The evolution of morphology distributions due to crystal growth inside the morphology domain is described by a morphological-population balance model (M-PBM) which readily submits to solution by the method of characteristics. The methodology, illustrated in controlling crystal morphologies of potassium acid phthalate using additives, paves the way for model-based control of shape control of crystallization processes.”
“We present a generic spatially explicit modeling framework to estimate carbon emissions from deforestation (INPE-EM). The framework incorporates the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region under study. We build an emission model for the Brazilian Amazon combining

annual maps of new clearings, four maps of biomass, and a set of alternative parameters based on the recent literature. The most important results are as follows: (a) Using different biomass maps leads to large differences in estimates of emission; for the entire region of the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade, emission estimates VX770 of primary forest deforestation range from 0.21 to 0.26 similar to Pg similar to C similar to yr-1. (b) Secondary vegetation growth presents a small impact on emission balance because

of the short duration of secondary vegetation. In average, the balance is only 5% smaller than the primary forest deforestation emissions. (c) Deforestation rates decreased significantly in the Brazilian Amazon in recent years, from 27 similar to Mkm2 in 2004 to 7 similar to Mkm2 in 2010. INPE-EM process-based estimates reflect this decrease even though the agricultural frontier is moving to areas of higher biomass. The decrease is slower than a non-process instantaneous model would estimate as it considers residual emissions (slash, wood products, and secondary vegetation). The average balance, considering all biomass, decreases from 0.28 in 2004 to 0.15 similar to Pg similar to C similar to yr-1 in 2009; the non-process model estimates a decrease from 0.33 to 0.10 similar to Pg similar to C similar to yr-1. We conclude that the INPE-EM is a powerful tool for representing deforestation-driven carbon emissions. Biomass estimates are still the largest source of uncertainty in the effective use of this type of model for informing mechanisms such as REDD+.