Figure 4 Localization
of expression of the TβR-II, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, Smad7 and phosphorylated Smad2 in CNE2 cells. (A) The TβR-II was located mainly in the cell membrane, and positive staining Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, was found in regions of both cytoplasm and nucleus, while the staining of Smad7 was mainly in the area of nucleus. (B) Phosphorylated Smad2 was undetectable in CNE2 cells without TGF-β1, after stimulation with TGF-β1, phosphorylated Smad2 could be detected in the cytoplasm of CNE2 cells, while Smad7 located originally in nuclear OICR-9429 without TGF-β1, and it could be detected in the cytoplasm after stimulation of TGF-β1. TGF-β1 inducing activation and translocation of Smad proteins in NPC cells To determine whether Smad is activated and translocated in response to TGF-β1 stimulation in CNE2 cells, we assessed the subcellular distribution of the phosphorylated (activated) Smad2/3 by immunocytochemistry staining. No phosphorylated Smad2/3 staining was exhibited in CNE2 cells without TGF-β1 Cobimetinib mouse stimulation, however, a very strong staining of phosphorylated Smad2/3 was found in regions of both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the CNE2 cells after TGF-β1 treatment compared to untreated cells. This result indicated that Smad2
was phosphorylated and activated after TGF-β1 stimulation. Furthermore, we investigated the inhibitory Smad-Smad 7 protein in response to TGF-β1 stimulation in CNE2 cells. The buy BIBF 1120 results indicated that the positive staining of Smad 7 initially was localized in the region of the nucleus before TGF-β1 treatment. However, positive staining of Smad 7 was observed in the cytoplasm after TGF-β1 treatment, which implied that Smad 7 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to the TGF-β1 stimulation (Figure 4B). Discussion TGF-β1 is a very potent inhibitor of many epithelial tumors, however, the role of TGF-β1 in nasopharyngeal Carcinoma progression is ambiguous. In the present study herein, we demonstrated for the first time that CNE2 cells have lost the sensitivity to growth suppression by TGF-β1 (Figure 1). Interestingly, rather than a defective TGF-β/Smad
signaling pathway which leads to a loss of response to the growth suppression effect of TGF-β1, our results indicate that the TGF-β/Smad signaling is functional in the CNE2 cell after Dimethyl sulfoxide treatment TGF-β1. The TβR-II is expressed normally, while Smads 2, Smads 3, Smads 4 are significantly increased at the mRNA level and the protein level compared to the levels observed in the normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (Figure 2, 3). The mRNA and protein expression of Smad7 remains unchanged in the CNE2 cells. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that the transmembrane receptor TβR-II and the intracellular component Smads are also detectable (Figure 4A), where pretreatment of CNE2 cells with TGF-β1 causes activation of the Smad 2 protein, and the inhibitory Smad 7 translocates from the nucleus into the cytoplasm (Figure 4B).