rebaudiana ( Jackson et al 2009), where preliminary results were

rebaudiana ( Jackson et al. 2009), where preliminary results were obtained using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). We now describe an isolation procedure and structural analysis of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from aqueous extracts of roots and leaves of S. rebaudiana, including determination of their degree of polymerisation (DP), using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Dried, powdered leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni were purchased from SteviaFarma, Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Roots were collected in the nearby Medicinal

Plant Garden. Voucher specimens of the plant material are deposited in the herbarium of the Department

of Biology at the Maringá State University (identification number 14301-HUEM). All reagents were of analytical XL184 price grade. Dried roots (100.0 g) were powdered and successively extracted with refluxing hexane (1000 mL) for 4 h and methanol (1000 mL) for 4 h. Insoluble material was separated and extracted with boiling water for 4 h (1000 mL). The extract was cooled, stirred for 3 h, and centrifuged buy ABT-199 (8000g, 30 min). The supernatant was evaporated to a small volume, added to EtOH (3×, v/v), left at 4 °C overnight; insoluble fructooligosaccharides were formed as a precipitate on addition to three volumes of EtOH (v/v). Centrifugation (8000g; 20 min) provided sediment, which was collected, washed twice with EtOH at the same 3:1 concentration and dried to give a product (15.7 g). This was dissolved in water (200 mL),

and the solution then submitted to freezing followed by gentle thawing at 4 °C ( Iacomini, Gorin, & Baron, 1988) until no more precipitate appeared. Centrifugation gave, following freeze-drying, the soluble component containing root fructooligosaccharides (RFOS, 4.6 g). Dried leaves of S. rebaudiana (100 g) were extracted with refluxing acetone (1000 mL) for 2 h (3×). The residue was extracted with refluxing water (1000 mL) for 2 h (3×), which was evaporated to a small volume, and added to EtOH (3×, v/v). The resulting precipitate (4.75 g) was dissolved in water (100 mL), and the solution was treated with 10% aqueous Fenbendazole TCA (100 mL) to precipitate protein. After centrifugation, the supernatant was neutralised with aq. NaOH, dialysed and freeze-dried. The residue was dissolved in H2O (100 mL), and the solution was submitted to freeze–thawing until no more precipitate appeared. Centrifugation gave, following freeze-drying, the soluble component (2.68 g). Afterwards, 1.0 g was submitted to treatment using Sartorius ultrafiltration equipment (Model 16249). Commercial membranes with a molecular mass cut-off (MMCO) of 100 kDa and 30 kDa (Millipore) were used. Each one was cut to size and soaked overnight in deionised H2O, prior to use. Filtration experiments were carried out at a constant pressure of 4 bar.

The pH of the solution is then raised again to induce precipitati

The pH of the solution is then raised again to induce precipitation. Using this method, stable dispersions of magnesium pyrophosphate were prepared. Calcium resulted in particles too large and aggregated to remain in dispersion (Fig. 1d). The same held for the mixed systems: only mixed systems containing magnesium and less than 5% Fe3+ resulted in stable colloidal particles (see Supplemental Material Table S1 for selleck inhibitor details). Morphologically, all magnesium containing systems looked similar. From TEM analysis, it was found that small, thin, irregular platelets of about 50 nm were formed

(Fig. 1e and f). Fig. 2 shows that the zein coated systems and Mg-containing systems prepared by the pH-dependent precipitation method remained stable for much

longer periods of time compared to pure FePPi. The Mg-containing mixed systems remained stable for more than four months (Fig. 2c), further washing steps did not improve dispersion stability for any of these systems (not shown). The mixed systems prepared by coprecipitation at an Fe content above 80% had a stability similar to the pure FePPi, although the amount and type of secondary metal used had a great influence on this stability (Fig. 2b–d). The relative stability was clearly influenced by the cation used; Ca2+ substituted systems destabilised within days, while Na+ substituted systems remained stable for over three months. There see more appeared to be no specific order in the effect of the substitution ratio as it varied per substituting metal. An initial test reaction demonstrated the clear inhibition of the Fe–GA complex formation by incorporating the iron in an inorganic matrix. Fig. 3a–e shows that a solution of FeCl3 sample immediately turned black upon the

addition of gallic acid while a sample containing iron pyrophosphate had only reached full colouration after seven days. Analysis by spectrophotometry (Fig. 3f and g) showed that most of the complex formation occurred within the first hour and that the quinone signal at 395 nm started to become significant after about 4 h, making further analysis of the reaction inaccurate. Therefore, Anidulafungin (LY303366) it was decided to analyse the absorbance at 560 nm only for the first 5 h after the addition of gallic acid. Spectrophotometric analysis of the complex formation over time showed a clear influence of the preparation method on the reactivity of the particles. A sample freshly prepared by the coprecipitation method increased absorbance until it reached its maximum value after about 60 min (Fig. 4a), while the dialysed system increased much more slowly and had not fully reached its plateau value after 300 min. A solution of FeCl3, at the same concentration of iron, had an initial absorbance of 0.8 (not shown), indicating successful protection of the majority of the Fe3+ at least for the duration of the analysis. Fig.

According to Grappin, Rank, and Olson (1985) this fraction is ver

According to Grappin, Rank, and Olson (1985) this fraction is very resistant to chymosin and its degradation is selleck compound associated to plasmin, whose preferred substrates therefore are fractions β and αs2; however degradation products of αs2 have not yet been identified ( Fox, 1989). Similar results

for higher degradation of αs1-casein and lower degradation of β-casein were also found by Gorostiza et al. (2004) when studying Prato cheese, by Irigoyen, Izco, Ibáñez and Torre (2002) when studying ovine cheese made with lamb rennet, by Bansal et al. (2009) when studying Cheddar cheese made with fermentation-produced camel or calf chymosin, and by Silva and Malcata (2004) when also studying ovine cheese made with coagulant form C. cardunculus. Edwards and Kosikowski (1969) also found differences in the way different coagulants acted on αs1-casein; the authors saw that there was higher degradation in Cheddar cheese click here made with calf rennet, followed by microbial coagulants from Mucor and Endothia. Therefore we can see that even the commercial coagulants available in the market act in different ways on cheese caseins. The important thing is that this differentiated action does not technologically affect the product in such way that it can normally develop its characteristics of

flavour, texture, etc. The RP-HPLC analysis of the pH 4.6-soluble fraction (Fig. 3) was carried out, which is mainly produced by the residual coagulant since products from plasmin action such as proteose–peptones are soluble at pH 4.6 but have little contribution to pH 4.6-SN and γ-caseins are insoluble at pH 4.6 (McSweeney & Fox, 1997). The chromatograms obtained, using absorbance at 214 nm as a detection system (wavelength at which peptide bonds absorb), are very complex with many peaks and some quantitative differences between peptide profiles of both processes as ripening progressed with increase of intensity of some peaks and decrease of others. More peaks in chromatogram T may represent products of unknown hydrolysis since αs1-casein was less hydrolysed in this system or it anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody can represent β-casein hydrolysis products, which

was more hydrolysed in this system, as shown in Fig. 2B. Again, the important thing is that this differentiated action does not technologically affect the product. Despite some quantitative differences between profiles from both processes, a similar behaviour is noted as the peptides strongly increased in the first 30 days and then remained practically unchanged in the last 30 days. These results are in accordance with the determinations of NS-pH 4.6/NT*100 discussed previously: in cheeses made with coagulant from Thermomucor, NS-pH 4.6/NT*100 increased strongly from the first to the 15th day followed by a stabilisation and in cheeses made with commercial coagulant, NS-pH 4.6/NT*100 increased from the first to the 30th day followed by stabilisation ( Fig. 1A).

regulations gov/#!documentDetail;D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0383-0015)!documentDetail;D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0383-0015). selleckchem A multi-chemical approach considering model variance and co-variance structure and co-occurrence of chemicals is described in the SHEDS-Multimedia technical manual. Data from the U.S. Department

of Agriculture was used to identify those raw agricultural commodities where detection limit substitutions were needed ( The Diversity and Autocorrelation (D & A) method (Glen et al., 2008) was used to construct longitudinal data for the residential and dietary exposure estimates. Indoor awake time was set as a key variable for the residential exposure estimates, with D and A statistics set to 0.25 and 0.4, respectively. Total caloric consumption was used as the key variable for the dietary exposure estimates, with D and A statistics set to 0.3 and 0.1, respectively (based on longitudinal data from Lu et al., 2006). The cumulative exposure for one year was simulated and statistics for 21 days were matched with NHANES biomarker data for model evaluation. To combine the dietary and residential module outputs we used the methodology described in Zartarian et al. (2012) and depicted in Fig. 1. This approach has been previously externally peer-reviewed

(FIFRA SAP, 2007 and FIFRA SAP, 2010) and also evaluated in the Zartarian et al., 2012 permethrin case study. Here we briefly describe the procedure: 1) Assemble longitudinal data from cross-sectional data for both residential and dietary using the D & A method; 2) form bins with key variables such as age and gender; and 3) create 5 small bins from each BIBF 1120 molecular weight Methane monooxygenase bin formed by key variables by percentile range by total caloric consumption weighted by body weight for dietary and averaged MET weighted by body weight for residential. The SHEDS-Multimedia residential and dietary modules were each applied to estimate exposures for 3–5 year olds. We generated and analyzed population variability results for annual averaging time to identify key chemicals and pathways. The built-in

pharmacokinetic (PK) model to estimate absorbed dose (Glen et al., 2010) was used for the initial exposure pathway contribution analysis. A sample size of ~ 4000 individuals was used for the one year variability simulations. Results are reported for an annual averaging time and for separate and aggregated pathways. Skin surface loadings in human dermal studies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than real-world levels. When surface loading exceeds a uniform monolayer over the course of study, dermal absorption is flux-limited, yet when surface loading is sparse, as happens in real-world scenarios, absorption transitions to a supply-limited state (Kissel, 2011). Thus, when fractional absorption is determined from such dermal studies, high surface loadings decrease the apparent fractional absorption, ultimately biasing the modeled dermal contribution.

Second, in line with the LTM memory account, we document the role

Second, in line with the LTM memory account, we document the role of experienced conflict on encoding of LTM traces.

The cost asymmetry arises only when subjects have experienced conflict from the dominant task while performing the non-dominant task (Exp. 1). Third, we also examined the role of interruptions in determining the cost asymmetry. Consistent with the idea that interruptions have a structural effect (i.e., in terms of enforcing an updating process during recovery from the interruption), we demonstrated that the cost asymmetry could not be explained in terms of task-specific associative mappings (Experiment 3). Also, consistent with the structural hypothesis we demonstrated that the type, the attentional control demands, or the duration of interruptions have at best very

small effects on the cost asymmetry. Apoptosis inhibitor In line with our general model this suggests that what matters is not the interruption activity itself, but simply the fact that interruptions elicit a working-memory updating process. Fourth, an important aspect of the current work is that the interruption paradigm, combined with the exogenous/endogenous signaling pathway tasks provides a particularly clear empirical distinction between the updating mode (post-interruption trials) and the maintenance mode (exogenous-task maintenance trials). In standard task-switching situations it seems particularly difficult to bring subjects to adopt a pure maintenance mode, as the mere possibility of task switching may induce a tendency to update even on no-switch trials (e.g., Monsell & Mizon, 2006). A clear empirical distinction between updating and maintenance allows examining context and individual differences factors that could selectively affect these two modes of control and how people negotiate between them. We are currently using this paradigm to test

the hypothesis that older adults are “chronic updaters” (Mayr, 2001 and Spieler Org 27569 et al., 2006). Our initial results indicate that while young adults exhibit virtually no trace of conflict from the endogenous task in exogenous-task maintenance trials (e.g., as in the exo/endo condition in Fig. 2), old adults continue to exhibit substantial costs and conflict effects across maintenance trials. This is consistent with the hypothesis that old adults find it difficult to revert to a full maintenance mode following an interruption. Combined, our results provide a powerful challenge to models that emphasize the clash between the immediate past and the present as the main driver of task-selection costs. In the following we discuss both implications of our results, as well as remaining challenges. We found that adopting an exogenous attentional setting after an interruption produces a larger RT cost than adopting an endogenous attentional setting. As noted, this pattern is similar to the switch-cost asymmetry found for other dominant vs. non-dominant task combinations in traditional task-switching situations.

However, on UM clearfelled sites desired invader species such as

However, on UM clearfelled sites desired invader species such as Oxalis acetosella (woodsorrel), Anemone nemorosa (wood anemone), Conopodium majus (pignut) and Primula vulgaris (primrose) were not found, while bluebell was seen on only 15 quadrats and Teucrium scorodonia (wood sage) on just 2. The solitary PAWS site that was examined had a considerably richer ground flora with wood sorrel, wood sage and bluebell seen on 21%, 29% and 79% of quadrats respectively. We found that the sites which had been clearfelled 10 years MK-8776 in vivo ago had significantly

greater vascular plant coverage (111%) compared to sites that had been clearfelled 2 years ago (11.7%, p = 0.001). The % mean woody debris on spruce clearfell sites declined from 51% 2 years after felling to 12.7% and 5.1% at 5 and 10 years post-felling respectively. We have

explored the regeneration density of native broadleaved species on clearfelled conifer sites in upland Britain. We compared regeneration on clearfelled sites to control sites that had neither been planted with conifers or clearfelled. We restricted our analysis to a subset of sites with similar see more time since clearfelling and soil type. Mean regeneration density on this subset of clearfelled upland moorland sites (3392 individuals/ha) was significantly greater than on upland moorland (64 individuals/ha) or improved farmland (14 individuals/ha) sites. Availability of data meant that in this analysis we combined sites across regions (Lake District and eastern

Scotland) and were unable to account for site location as a covariate. Regeneration density on all clearfelled upland moorland sites (3515 individuals/ha) was at the lower end of that recorded by Harmer and Morgan (2009) (3000–11,000 individuals/ha) in a storm damaged lowland conifer site in south-east England that had been allowed to naturally regenerate. The regeneration density we recorded was lower than conifer regeneration Galeterone within small windthrows (Jonásová et al., 2010) or clearfells (Modrý et al., 2004 and Holgén and Hånell, 2000) where sapling densities as great as 160,000 individuals/ha have been recorded (Modrý et al., 2004, Holgén and Hånell, 2000 and Jonásová et al., 2010). The high regeneration density in these studies was likely due to an ample seed source due to the surrounding woodland whereas in our study the seed source was limited to individual mature trees. Nevertheless, the regeneration density on clearfelled upland moorland sites and a clearfelled PAWS site (5790 stems/ha) exceeded the suggested sapling stocking densities for new native woodland in Britain of between 500 and 2000 stems/ha (Forestry Commission, 2010). The diversity of regenerating species was usually lower than that of the adjacent seed sources with regeneration dominated by birch on all but one clearfelled site, as has been found previously at storm damaged lowland sites in Britain (Harmer and Morgan, 2009 and Harmer et al.

If the glucoevatromonoside inhibit the Na+K+ATPase, a reversion o

If the glucoevatromonoside inhibit the Na+K+ATPase, a reversion of the viral inhibition by cells exposure to culture medium containing an increased amount of K+ would be expected. Therefore, MEM was modified to contain 27 mM of potassium (5 times more than in the usual MEM = 5.4 mM). When Vero cells were infected and remained in this modified

MEM (lane 6), the HSV replication occurred characteristically suggesting that the K+ supplementation learn more did not cause any alterations to the host cells, and consequently to the virus replication. In the same way, when the infected cells were treated with glucoevatromonoside and remained in the modified medium (lane 7), the viral protein levels were not inhibited. Furthermore, the treatment with glucoevatromonoside at 0.26 μM (IC100)

using the plaque reduction assay performed with K+ supplementation reestablished 22% of the viral replication capacity (data not CHIR-99021 mw shown), so these results indicated that the ion K+ is required to HSV-1 replication confirming the results obtained by Nagai et al. (1972). Still striving to elucidate the mechanism of antiherpes activity of glucoevatromonoside, its ability to interfere on virus release was investigated through the determination of intracellular and extracellular HSV-1 titers. Digitoxin, an inhibitor of this stage (Su et al., 2008), was used as a positive control. Every glucoevatromonoside tested concentrations significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced the extracellular

and intracellular virus titers confirming the inhibition of this step of virus replication (data not shown). Interleukin-2 receptor For example, the lower tested concentration (0.065 μM) reduced the extracellular and intracellular virus titers more than 99.99% (a reduction of 4.8 Log) and 90% (a reduction of 1.6 Log), respectively. In the same way, the percentages of virus release in the presence of different concentrations of glucoevatromonoside and digitoxin were calculated. These compounds inhibited HSV-1 release in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the glucoevatromonoside at its IC50/2 (0.065 μM) was more effective (99.7% of viral release inhibition) than the digitoxin at its IC50/2 (0.17 μM. (76% of viral release inhibition). It is well known that HSV infect epidermis and mucosae cells, and a rapid viral cell-to-cell spread is very important to the establishment of productive primary or recurrent infections in humans (Nyberg et al., 2004). The effect of different concentrations (0.015–0.25 μM) of glucoevatromonoside on HSV-1 cell-to-cell spread was evaluated through a viral plaque size reduction assay, and the results showed a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in the areas of formed viral plaques (from 56% to 98%), when compared to those formed in viral control (data not shown). This effect could be a consequence of the inhibition of viral release.

, 2012 and Molina et al , 2012) In Brazil, raltegravir is used a

, 2012 and Molina et al., 2012). In Brazil, raltegravir is used as part of salvage regimens of patients with documented resistance to multiple

antiretroviral drugs ( Despite its high activity when combined with optimized background therapy (OBT), different mutations confer loss of susceptibility to raltegravir, as well as to other INIs (Steigbigel et al., 2008, Shimura et al., 2008, Rowley, 2008, Malet et al., 2009 and Mbisa click here et al., 2011). The pathways G148H/R/K, N155H and, less frequently Y143C/H/R, lead to an important viral resistance to raltegravir (Cooper et al., 2008). Also, some of these mutations also confer cross-resistance to other INIs, such as Q148H/R/K to elvitegravir

(Shimura et al., 2008, Malet et al., 2009, Mbisa et al., 2011 and Blanco et al., 2011). Dolutegravir seems less susceptible to genetic resistance (Canducci et al., 2011), but different combinations of substitutions Q148H/K/R, G140S/A and E138 K/A may reduce its susceptibility by 10- to 20-fold ( selleck chemical Along substitutions associated to the loss of susceptibility to raltegravir, non polymorphic accessory mutations can emerge during therapy as result of selective pressure. Moreover, natural polymorphisms of the integrase gene, such as V151I and I72 V, have been associated to a small decrease in susceptibility Carbohydrate to INIs (Passaes et al., 2009 and Low et al., 2009). Marinello et al. (2008) documented the negative impact of the F121Y substitution on integrase strand transfer activity, while integration patterns remains unchanged. Moreover, albeit never described in clinical isolates, HIV

Stanford Resistance Database and Geno2Pheno both list 121Y as conferring a 5–10-fold decrease in raltegravir (Kobayashi et al., 2008, Rowley, 2008 and Blanco et al., 2011) and elvitegravir (Shimura et al., 2008) susceptibility, leading to an intermediate resistance profile. Identification of potential mutational pathways is important to understand the evolution of resistance patterns and the drug susceptibility in HIV-1 infection. In the present study we report the in vivo selection of the non-polymorphic substitution F121Y in a 31 years old male patient, diagnosed in August 1998 with HIV-1 infection, who underwent six treatment regimens (starting with HAART: zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine) prior to the use of RAL-containing therapy.

59, p < 0 01, η2 = 0 20) and a trend session × gamble × group int

59, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.20) and a trend session × gamble × group interaction (F[3, 90] = 2.70, p = 0.051, η2 = 0.08), showing that the impaired estimation of the low-value options was specific to the observational learning session. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that impaired learning

in the observer session of Experiment 1 cannot be attributed to a temporal order effect or to the learning of novel stimuli. The AA group actually showed improved learning in the second session, perhaps attributable to generalization of learning strategies, but note this effect did not interact with gamble pair. This does not preclude SB203580 the possibility, however, that a general improvement with task repetition may interact with the specific impairment we find in observational learning of low-value options. The significance of such an interaction cannot be determined in Experiment 1, however, since counterbalancing session order would have introduced the serious confound that sequences of choices would not have been matched between actor and observer learning. Sixteen new

participants took part in Experiment 3 (seven female, mean age 21.1 yrs, SD 1.8). Experiment 3 was designed to distinguish between over-valuation of low-value options versus over-estimation of low probability events. By reversing the frame we change the valence and value of the corresponding outcome, while holding outcome probability constant. Hence, a 20% probability of a £1 win becomes a 20% probability of a £1 loss. Subjects overestimate the probability of the 20% win in Experiment 1, hence if they underestimate the probability of an 80% loss (i.e. the worst-valued option in both circumstances), this indicates

a value-specific effect as distinct from an effect on probability (where we would expect over-estimation of the likelihood of both 20% win and loss outcomes). This manipulation in effect presents matched reward distributions, but translates the average reward for each from gain to loss. Experiment 3 utilized the same procedure and tasks (both actor and observer) as those in Experiment 1, but with modified instructions and incentives. Participants were initially endowed with £10 per session. Instead of earning money from yellow boxes in the task, participants were informed that they would lose money from red boxes. In this way, the punishing power of the red boxes was PJ34 HCl assumed to attract more attention than in Experiment 1. At the end of the task, participants provided explicit estimates of the probability of losing (ploss) for each stimulus, in place of the pwin estimates in Experiment 1. Again, while Experiment 3 used the same design as Experiment 1, between-subject interactions with the findings from Experiment 1 were critical. We term Experiment 3’s participants the AO-loss group. Within the AO-loss group, we found main effects of session (F[1, 15] = 13.36, p < 0.005, η2 = 0.47), gamble pair (F[3, 45] = 13.98, p < 0.

, 2008) In South Asia, more than 80% of water and sediment disch

, 2008). In South Asia, more than 80% of water and sediment discharges from the Indus River have been diverted by large reservoirs and flow diversion (Giosan et al., 2006). In the Red River basin, the HoaBinh

dam constructed in 1989 is estimated to be responsible for the 50% decline in annual sediment delivery to the delta (Dang et al., 2010). During the four years (2003–2006) after Three Gorges Dam impoundment, ∼60% of sediment entering the Three Gorges Reservoir was trapped. The Manwan Reservoir in the upper reaches trapped substantial amount of Mekong’s sediment since most of its sediment derives from its upper reaches. The sediment load at Gajiu station, located 2 km downstream from the reservoir, is only one-third of the pre-dam level (Wang et al., 2011). In comparison with other world’s large dams, the Xiaolangdi dam not only regulates river flow, but also manages the river’s sediment. The WSM through Xiaolangdi see more dam has temporally mitigated the infilling

of sediment in reservoirs and scoured the riverbed. New problems, however, has arisen that the Xiaolangdi reservoir is losing its impoundment capacity at high rate and the riverbed scouring in the lower reaches has weakened since 2006. The managed WSM therefore may not be a long-term solution for sediment-laden rivers that are troubled by sediment-associated problems. The discharge regime of the Huanghe has deviated greatly from its natural condition due to the multiple dam effects. The dam-triggered changes in Huanghe water and sediment delivery to the sea have caused a series of environmental problems. These problems include a shrinking delta plain due to sediment-starvation, altered ecological environments new and nutrient concentrations in coastal waters, and a transition in plume processes at the river mouth (Chu et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2010 and Yu et al., 2013). The Huanghe delta plain has been shrinking, in response to the curtailed sediment supply (Chu et al., 2006). Many deltas in the world are also shrinking due to dam-triggered sediment reduction

(Chu et al., 2006 and Nageswara Rao et al., 2012). The drowning of the Mississippi delta is ascribed primarily to insufficient sediment supply (Blum and Roberts, 2009), which is largely due to construction of dams in the Mississippi Basin. And the current sediment flux is incapable to sustain the delta plain, even if the diversion plan of the Mississippi River could be performed (Kim et al., 2009 and Allison and Meselhe, 2010). Dams on the Colorado and Nile River, together with extensive downstream irrigation systems, have resulted in almost total elimination of riverine sediment delivery to the coastal regions. As a result, the Colorado and Nile deltas are actively receding due to sediment deficit (Stanley, 1996 and Carriquiry et al., 2001). In the Yangtze basin, the construction of the Three Gorges Dam has been linked to erosion of the Yangtze’s subaqueous delta.