stage: apparent studies, according to title or abstract, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Lenalidomide.html which presented surgical interventions for the treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Later on we obtained complete texts of all the studies, including those that presented uncertain methodology. 2a. stage: studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria (comparative randomized clinical trials). We performed a careful evaluation of the description of the blind randomization process, allowing us to classify the study in four categories: Category A: when the blind process of randomization was appropriately reported (randomization centralized by an office; sequential administration of pre-coded or numbered packages; computerized system at a distance etc.
or other methods that appear to offer adequate allocation, combined with the fact that the person who handled the secrecy of the allocation is not involved in the survey); Category B: when the blind randomization was not described, but the text mentions that the study is random (list or tables used; envelopes without qualifying their type; allocation apparently adequate, but without any other information); Category C: when the blind randomization was inadequate (alternation; numbers of medical records; dates of birth; weekdays; any blind allocation in which this is not totally unpredictable); Category D: means that the study was not random. In concluding this classification, we created a collection of documents with the articles classified as A, B, C or D. Articles classified as A or B were included in the study, and those classified as C or D were excluded as they did not constitute randomized clinical trials.
After identifying the comparative randomized clinical studies, we verified other inclusion criteria: a) skeletally mature patients, both sexes; b) atemporal intra-articular calcaneal fractures, classified exclusively on a basis of computed tomography as Sanders II and III; c) minimum follow-up of six months; d) clinical and functional outcome evaluated by the questionnaire of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). 3a. stage: studies that did not fulfill the inclusion criteria, involving the identification of studies with skeletally immature patients, patients with congenital deformities, pathological exposed fractures or local dermatological pathologies, refractures or previous hindfoot surgery; follow-up time under six months, besides cases submitted to conservative treatment.
GSK-3 The reviewers’ evaluations were not masked in relation to the authors or the results of the studies. The reason for the exclusion was documented for each study and the discrepancies regarding inclusion and/or exclusion of studies were resolved by consensus. In relation to the collection of data, these were extracted independently by the two reviewers and cross-referenced to verify concordance. The discordant results were resolved by consensus.