Serum IFN-b and IL-6 concentrations

in the infected contr

Serum IFN-b and IL-6 concentrations

in the infected control and MPYS(-/-) mice were also similar at 24 h postinfection, suggesting that these pathogens stimulate MPYS-independent cytokine production during in vivo infection. Our findings indicate that bifurcating MPYS-dependent and – independent pathways mediate sensing of cytosolic bacterial infections. The Journal of Immunology, 2011, 187: 2595-2601.”
“Despite recent advances, there are still no interventions that have been developed for the specific treatment of young children who have anxiety disorders. This study examined the impact of a new, cognitive-behaviorally based parenting intervention on anxiety symptoms. Method: Families of 74 anxious children (aged 9 years or less) took part in a randomized controlled

trial, selleck chemical which compared the new 10-session, group-format intervention with a wait-list control condition. Outcome measures included blinded diagnostic interview and self-reports from parents and children. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that children whose parent(s) received the intervention were significantly less anxious at the end of the study than those in the control condition. Specifically, 57% of those GS-7977 price receiving the new intervention were free of their primary disorder, compared with 15% in the control condition. Moreover, 32% of treated children were free of any anxiety diagnosis at the end of the treatment period, compared with 6% of those in the control group. Treatment gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: This new parenting-based intervention may represent an advance in the treatment of this previously neglected group. Clinical trial registration information: Anxiety in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a New Cognitive-Behaviourally Based Parenting Intervention; http://www.isrctn.orgi; ISRCTN12166762. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2011;50(3):242-251.”
4 Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine if mouthwashes with a morphine-containing check details solution decrease oral pain associated

with radiotherapy- and/or chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (OM).\n\nMethods: Randomized double-blinded crossover study to evaluate the effect of topical oral application of 2% morphine solution in patients suffering from radiotherapy- and/or chemotherapy-induced OM. Participants assigned to either the morphine solution or a placebo mouthwash received one of the solutions days 1-3 and were then switched over to the other treatment for days 4-6.\n\nResults: Nine patients were randomized in both groups. All patients (mean age, 55.1 +/- 3.0) except one had head and neck cancers. Mean intensity of pain associated with mucosal injury (World Health Organization [WHO] mucositis >= 2) was on a 10-point visual analogue scale: 6.0 +/- 2.7).

An important finding is that some f-information measures are show

An important finding is that some f-information measures are shown to be effective for selecting relevant and nonredundant genes from microarray data. The effectiveness of different f-information measures, along with a comparison with mutual information, is demonstrated on breast cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer datasets. While some f-information measures provide 100% prediction accuracy for all three microarray datasets, mutual information attains this accuracy only for breast

cancer dataset, and 98.6% and 93.6% for leukemia and colon cancer datasets, respectively.”
“Factors controlling metabolic flexibility (MF), the ability MAPK inhibitor of the body to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to feeding or with insulin administration, buy HKI-272 are being actively investigated We sought to determine the effects of race (African

American vs Caucasian) and diabetes status (nondiabetic vs type 2 diabetes mellitus Individuals) on MF to glucose in humans. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and macronutrient substrate utilization were evaluated by Indirect calorimetry during baseline (fasting) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU m(-2) min(-1)), Delta RQ (MF) = clamp RQ – fasting RQ. The study included 168 human subjects of different races (55 African Americans, 113 Caucasians), sex (73 men, 95 women), ages (18-73 years), body mass index (19 3-47 7 kg/m(2)), and diabetes status (89 nondiabetic, 79 type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects) Metabolic flexibility was negatively correlated (P < .01) with age (r = -0 41), fasting RQ (r = -0 22), fasting glucose (r = -0 55), insulin (r = -0 40), and triglyceride CB-839 cell line (r = -0 44) concentrations, whereas a positive association was observed with insulin sensitivity (r = 0 69, P < 0001)

Insulin sensitivity, fasting RQ, triglyceride concentrations, diabetes status, and race accounted for 71% of the variability in MF with insulin sensitivity being the main determinant factor (model R(2) = 048, P < 0001). After controlling for the significant predictors, MF was higher in African Americans vs Caucasians (mean +/- SEM 0 080 +/- 0.004 vs 0.069 +/- 0 002, P = 008) and in nondiabetic vs type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects (P = .003) This study confirms that insulin sensitivity is the major contributor to MF in humans, but provides the novel findings that African Americans have significantly greater MF than Caucasians even after adjusting for insulin sensitivity and diabetes status (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved”
“A number of reports have suggested that the 3 oxidative state of human albumin in serum and in some body fluids is associated with cell damage. However there are no reports on the redox state of human follicular fluid (FF) and its influence on oocyte viability.

The primary objective was to define the maximum tolerated dose (M

The primary 4 Objective was to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Bortezomib when combined with ECarboX. Results 18 patients received bortezomib 0.7 (n = 6), 1.0 (n = 3), 1.3 (n = 6) and 1.6 mg m(-2) (n = 3) and a protocol amendment reducing the capecitabine dose to 500 mg m(-2) BD was enacted due to myelotoxicity. Common treatment-related non-haematological adverse events of any grade were fatigue (83.3

%), anorexia (55.6 %), constipation (55.6 %) and nausea (55.6 %). Common Grade 3/4 haematological toxicities were neutropenia (77.8 %) CHIR98014 solubility dmso and thrombocytopenia (44.4 %). Objective responses were achieved in 6 patients (33.3 %) and a further 5 patients (27.8 %) had stable disease for bigger than 8 weeks. Conclusions The addition of Bortezomib to ECarboX is well tolerated and response rates are comparable with standard chemotherapy.”
“The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of renierol, extracted from marine sponge Halicdona. SP., on xanthine oxidase (XO) and its hypouricemic effect in vivo. Renierol and a positive control, allopurinol, were tested for their effects on XO activity by measuring the formation

of uric acid and superoxide radical from xanthine. Renierol inhibited XO in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner. IC50 value was 1.85 mu through the measuring Taselisib mw of uric acid and was 1.36 mu through the measuring of superoxide radical. Renierol was found to have an in vivo hypouricemic activity against potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricaemia in mice. After oral administration of renierol at doses of 10, 20 and 30, there was a significant decrease in the serum urate level (4.08 +/- 0.09 mg.dl(-1), P < 0.01), (3.47 +/- 0.11 mg.dl(-1), P < 0.01) and (3.12 +/- 0.08 mg.dl(-1), P < 0.01), when compared to the hyperuricaemic control

(6.74 +/- 0.23 mg.dl(-1)). Renierol was a potent XO inhibitor with hypouricemic find more activity in mice.”
“Several biologically significant parameters that are related to rice tillering are closely associated with rice grain yield. Although identification of the genes that control rice tillering and therefore influence crop yield would be valuable for rice production management and genetic improvement, these genes remain largely unidentified. In this study, we carried out functional mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for rice tillering in 129 doubled haploid lines, which were derived from a cross between IR64 and Azucena. We measured the average number of tillers in each plot at seven developmental stages and fit the growth trajectory of rice tillering with the Wang-Lan-Ding mathematical model.

“Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-inv

“Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that has come into common use to examine neural network function in normal

and impaired cognitive states. Using this promising type of analysis, researchers have identified the presence of anatomically distributed regions operating as large-scale neural networks, which are observed both during the performance of associative memory tasks and in the resting state. The assembly of these anatomically distinct regions into functional ensembles and their choreographed activation find more and deactivation sets the stage for complex behaviors such as the formation and retrieval of associative memories. We review progress in the PF-6463922 clinical trial use of task-related and task-free MRI to elucidate the changes in neural activity in normal older individuals, patients with mild cognitive impairment, and those with Alzheimer’s disease, focusing on the altered activity of the default mode network and medial temporal lobe. We place task-free fMRI studies into the larger context of more traditional, task-based fMRI studies of human memory, which have firmly established the critical role of the medial temporal lobe in

associative encoding. Lastly, we discuss the data from our group and others that suggests task-free MRI and task-based fMRI may prove useful as non-invasive biomarkers in studying the progression of memory failure over the course of Alzheimer’s disease.”
“A clustered DNA lesion, also known as a multiply damaged site, is defined as >= 2 damages in the DNA within 1-2 helical turns. Only ionizing radiation and 432 certain chemicals introduce DNA damage in the genome in this non-random way. What is now clear is that the lethality of a damaging agent is not just related to the types of DNA lesions introduced, but also to how the damage is distributed in the DNA. Clustered DNA lesions were first hypothesized

to exist in the 1990s, and work has progressed where these complex lesions have been characterized and measured in irradiated as well as in non-irradiated cells. A clustered lesion can consist of single as well as double strand breaks, base damage and abasic sites, and the damages can be situated on the SC79 datasheet same strand or opposing strands. They include tandem lesions, double strand break (DSB) clusters and non-DSB clusters, and base excision repair as well as the DSB repair pathways can be required to remove these complex lesions. Due to the plethora of oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation, and the repair proteins involved in their removal from the DNA, it has been necessary to study how repair systems handle these lesions using synthetic DNA damage. This review focuses on the repair process and mutagenic consequences of clustered lesions in yeast and mammalian cells.

e 18:2(n – 6) or 14:0 Our study suggests that electrochemistry

e. 18:2(n – 6) or 14:0. Our study suggests that electrochemistry can be a useful technique for probing protein-lipid interactions, and more particularly the role played by the specific structure of the FA chains of CL on cyt c binding. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to find out the profile of cellular glutathione (GSH) G418 molecular weight and GSH 5-transferase (GST) in hepatocytes differentiated

from adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). For this purpose, we have derived functionally active hepatocyte-like cells from normal human multipotent adult MSC. Then the differentiated cells were characterized by specific hepatic markers. The cellular GSH and GST catalytic activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) were determined in hepatocyte-like cells AZD3965 differentiated from MSC compared with undifferentiated MSC. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting techniques were used to study GST-P1-1 and CST-A1-1 expression in differentiated and undifferentiated

cells. The results showed that there is more than threefold increase in GST catalytic activity in hepatocytes recovered by day 14 of differentiation. GST-P1-1 mRNA expression was detected in both differentiated hepatocyte-like cells and their undifferentiated progenitors. Under similar conditions, only differentiated hepatocyte-like cells expressed GST-A1-1 mRNA. These results were further confirmed by showing that the undifferentiated cells expressed both GST-A and GST-P proteins. Unlike GST, the level of cellular GSH was declined (similar to 20%) in hepatocytes derived from MSC as compared to that of undifferentiated cells. These data may suggest that

hepatogenic 3 differentiation of human bone marrow MSC is accompanied with the regulation of factors participating in GSH conjugation pathway. EGFR inhibitor review (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In order to obtain broadband and high Raman gain coefficient in the tellurite glass, a detailed study of the effects of WO3, MoO3, and P2O5 in TeO2-ZnO-Na2O-Nb2O5 (TZNN) glass system on the thermal stabilities and Raman spectroscopic was performed. It was found that both WO3 and MoO3 improved the glass thermal stability and enhanced the bandwidth significantly. Higher Raman gain coefficients and broader bandwidth were realized in the MoO3 modified glasses than those of WO3 added glass. The tellurite glass containing 15 mol. % MoO3 exhibits the bandwidth 1,7 times larger than the silica glass and the Raman gain coefficient is as high as 38 times that of the silica glass.

(C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc “
“Background and Purpose-Increased

(C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Background and Purpose-Increased total homocysteine find more (tHcy) is a risk factor for stroke. This study examines whether the efficacy of B-vitamins in reducing tHcy is modified by ethnicity in a Singaporean ischemic stroke population.\n\nMethods-505 patients (419 Chinese, 41 Malays and 45 Indians) with ischemic stroke were randomized to receive placebo or B-vitamins. Fasting blood samples collected at baseline and 1 year were assayed for tHcy. MTHFR polymorphisms were

genotyped.\n\nResults-Ethnicity did not independently determine tHcy at baseline. The magnitude of tHcy reduction by B-vitamin treatment was consistent across ethnic groups (Chinese -3.8 +/- 4.5, Malay -4.9 +/- 4.2, and Indian -3.3 +/- 3.6 mu mol/L) despite ethnic differences in MTHFR genotype and baseline folic acid (FA) and vitamin B(12) (vitB(12)) concentrations.\n\nConclusions-Ethnicity does not appear to affect the tHcy-lowering effect

of B-vitamins, despite differences in dietary intake and prevalence of MTHFR polymorphisms. This suggests that the effect of B-vitamins in lowering tHcy is generalizable across Asian populations. However, due to relatively small numbers of non-Chinese studied, confirmation in other 123 populations is required. (Stroke. 2009; 40: 2209-2211.)”
“The microRNA-183/96/182 cluster is GS-9973 cost highly expressed in the retina and other sensory organs. To uncover its in vivo functions in the retina, we generated a knockout mouse model, designated “miR-183C(GT/GT),” using a gene-trap embryonic stem cell clone. We provide evidence that inactivation of the cluster results in early-onset and progressive synaptic defects of the photoreceptors, leading to abnormalities of scotopic and photopic electroretinograms with decreased b-wave amplitude as the primary defect and progressive retinal degeneration. In addition, inactivation of the miR-183/96/182 cluster resulted in global Selleck Dactolisib changes in retinal gene expression,

with enrichment of genes important for synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, photoreceptor morphogenesis, and phototransduction, suggesting that the miR-183/96/182 cluster plays important roles in postnatal functional differentiation and synaptic connectivity of photoreceptors.”
“Cancer patients undergoing treatment may find it difficult to maintain proper caloric intake. This survey sought to characterize food/beverage preferences and services related to nutritional needs for oncology outpatients. A total of 222 adult oncology patients completed surveys while in an oncology clinic for treatment or for a medical appointment. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, cancer diagnosis/treatment, general health behaviours, preferences for various foods and beverages that could feasibly be offered in the clinic setting and interest in nutrition-related services.

In this study using computational analysis of sequenced rice geno

In this study using computational analysis of sequenced rice genome, we identified eight and seven potential non-redundant members involved in AsA and tocochromanol biosynthetic pathways, respectively. GSK-3 inhibitor The results reveal that the common feature

of these gene promoters is the combination of light-responsive, hormone-responsive, and stress-responsive elements. These findings, together with expression analysis in the MPSS database, indicate that AsA and tocochromanols might be co-related with the complex signaling pathways involved in plant responses. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The cytotoxicity of polyelectrolytes commonly 4 employed for layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMUs) was assessed using rat smooth muscle A7r5 and human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Cell growth, viability, and metabolic assays were used to compare the responses

of both cell lines to poly(acrylic acid), PAA, and poly(allylamine hydrochloride), PAR, in solution at concentrations up to 10 mM and to varying thicknesses of (PAA/PAH) PEMUs. Cytotoxicity correlated with increasing concentration Navitoclax research buy of solution polyelectrolytes for both cell types and was greater for the positively charged PAR than for the negatively charged PAA. While metabolism and proliferation of both cell types was slower on PEMUs than on tissue culture plastic, little evidence for direct toxicity on cells was observed. In fact, evidence for more extensive adhesion and cytoskeletal organization was observed with PAR-terminated

PEMUs. Differences in cell activity and viability on different thickness PEMU surfaces resulted primarily from differences in attachment for these adhesion-dependent cell lines.”
“The human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 is often used as a model for intestinal drug absorption. To better understand xenobiotic glucuronidation in Caco-2 cells, we have examined the expression HM781-36B levels of different UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in them. The effects of two main factors were investigated, namely, passage number and cell differentiation. Hence, the mRNA levels of 15 human UGTs of subfamilies 1A and 2B were assessed in both undifferentiated and fully differentiated cells at four passage levels: P31, P37, P43, and P49. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the mRNA levels of individual UGTs, and the values were normalized using beta-actin as a reference gene. The results indicate that although passage number in the tested range exerts a mild effect on the expression level of several UGTs, the contribution of cell differentiation is much larger. The expression of nearly all the UGTs that were examined in this study was significantly, sometimes greatly, increased during cell differentiation.

Thus, chronic exposure of skin to UVB irradiation leads to histol

Thus, chronic exposure of skin to UVB irradiation leads to histological changes consistent with aging, such as wrinkling, abnormal pigmentation, and loss of elasticity. We investigated the protective effect of the standardized green

tea seed extract (GSE) on UVB-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Skin photoaging was induced by UVB irradiation on the back of Skh-1 hairless mice three times per week and UVB irradiation was performed for 10 weeks. Mice were divided into six groups; normal control, UVB irradiated control group, positive control (UVB + dietary supplement of vitamin C 100 Nutlin-3 mg/kg), GSE 10 mg/kg (UVB + dietary supplement of GSE 10 mg/kg), GSE 100 mg/kg (UVB + dietary supplement of GSE 100 mg/kg), and GSE 200 mg/kg (UVB + dietary supplement of GSE 200 mg/kg). RESULTS: The dietary supplement GSE attenuated UVB irradiation-induced wrinkle formation and the decrease in density of dermal collagen fiber. In addition, results of the antioxidant selleck inhibitor analysis showed that GSE induced a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity compared with the UVB irradiation control group. Dietary supplementation with GSE 200 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 and an increase in expression of TIMP and type-1 collagen.

CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study suggest AZD7762 that dietary supplement GSE could be useful in attenuation of UVB irradiation-induced skin photoaging and wrinkle formation due to regulation of antioxidant defense systems and MMPs expression.”
“Background and Purpose An immature vascular phenotype in diabetes mellitus may cause more severe vascular damage and poorer functional outcomes after stroke, and it would be feasible to repair damaged functional vessels using endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation. However, high glucose induces p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, which can accelerate the senescence

and apoptosis of EPCs. The aim of this study was to 3 investigate the combined effects of EPC transplantation and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor administration on diabetic stroke outcomes. Methods Bone marrow-derived EPCs were injected intra-arterially into db/db mice after ischemic stroke induction. RWJ 67657 (RWJ), a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, was administered orally for 7 consecutive days, with the first dose given 30 minutes before stroke induction. Functional outcome was determined at days 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21. Angiogenesis, neurogenesis, infarct volume, and Western blotting assays were performed on day 7, and white matter remodeling was determined on day 14. Results Neither EPC transplantation nor RWJ administration alone significantly improved diabetic stroke outcome although RWJ displayed a potent anti-inflammatory effect.

The Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) and Mult

The Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D) have been applied to the multi-objective optimization problem, respectively. The Pareto solution set is obtained by a more effective and efficient manner of the two multi-objective optimization algorithms. A tradeoff optimal design point is selected from the Pareto solution set by means of a robust design based on Monte Carlo

simulations, and the optimal solution is further compared with the value of the physical prototype test. The results show that the solution of the proposed multi-objective optimization method is in line with the experiment test. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence buy AZD6094 dynamic changes in remote selleck chemicals llc images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional

soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface temperature is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface temperature product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day temperature, night temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand ( 3 bigger than 0.05 mm),

clay ( smaller than 0.001 mm) and physical clay ( smaller than 0.01 mm) contents. The models for each day were used to estimate soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the Small molecule library solubility dmso predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data.”
“5-Hydroxycytosine (5-OHC) is a stable oxidation product of cytosine associated with an increased frequency of C -> T transition mutations.

A -6 00D SMILE correction was performed in 9 rabbit eyes The len

A -6.00D SMILE correction was performed in 9 rabbit eyes. The lenticules were cryopreserved for 14 days and re-implanted. Five weeks later, 3

of these eyes underwent LASIK for -5.00D correction (RL group); 3 underwent LASIK flap creation, which was not lifted (RN); and no further procedures were performed on the remaining 3 eyes. These groups were compared with 3 eyes that underwent standard LASIK for a -5.00D correction (LO); 3 that underwent creation of non-lifted flap (LN); and 3 non-operated eyes. Rabbits were euthanized LXH254 in vitro 1 day post-surgery. Tissue responses were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, slit lamp and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Intrastromal irregularities and elevated reflectivity levels of the excimer-ablated plane were observed on slit lamp and IVCM, respectively in the RL group. The results were comparable (P Omipalisib mouse = 0.310) to IVCM findings in the LO group. RL and LO groups showed similar fibronectin expression levels, number of CD11b-positive cells (P = 0.304) and apoptotic cells (P = 0.198). There was no difference between the RN and

LN groups in reflectivity levels (P = 0.627), fibronectin expression levels, CD11b-positive cells (P = 0.135) and apoptotic cells (P = 0.128). LASIK can be performed following lenticule re-implantation to create presbyopic monovision. The tissue responses elicited after performing LASIK on corneas that have undergone SMILE and subsequent lenticule re-implantation are similar to primary procedure.”
“Background Head lice are a source of amusement for outsiders and an embarrassing nuisance to those who have to deal with them. Our study collected the emotions experienced by people dealing with head lice. An area with extremely

sparse literature, our purpose is to inform the development of more effective see more programs to control head lice. Methods We asked what were your feelings upon discovery of head lice? as part of a study exploring the experience of those treating head lice. A short questionnaire was available via the authors head lice information internet site. A total of 294 eligible responses were collected over several months and analyzed, supported by QSR N6. Results The predominantly female (90.9%) respondents were residents of Australia (56.1%), USA (20.4%), Canada (7.2%), or UK (4.4%), and working full-time (43.0%) or part-time (34.2%). Reactions and feelings fell into three categories: strong (n = 320; 79% of all stated emotions), mediocre (n = 56; 20%), and neutral (n = 29; 9.8%). There were no positive emotions. Comment The significant negative reaction was expected. The range of feeling expressed demonstrates the stigma held for these ectoparasites within western market economies. This contrasts with conceptions of head lice in traditional societies.