The last two master lectures of the Congress were delivered by Xuetao Cao (China) and Reinhold Schmidt (Germany). The former described the innate signaling pathways and their role in immune regulation. Xuetao Cao discussed TLRs and RLHs and the miRNA-mediated
regulation of innate this website and adaptive immune response by IFN expression and signaling. Reinhold Schmidt described the role of autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases and defects in antibody receptor in immune response inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Reinhold Schmidt showed that the function of FcγR III and IV are each essential to trigger FcγR linker for activation of T-cell-dependent signals that drives C5a production in the Arthus reaction. The master lectures of the morning each day were followed by three parallel sessions of theme-based symposia. Symposium one focused on immune regulatory networks and started with
the talk of Yousuke Takahama (Japan), who provided an overview of T lymphocyte repertoire formation in the selective thymic microenvironment. Following this, Hannes Stockinger (Austria) presented the work of his group on a new ultrasensitive live cell-imaging technique for studying immune reactions, which made effective use of the visualization of lipid rafts in living cells for the first time. Another speaker Paola Castagnoli (Singapore) highlighted the role of NFAT signaling in myeloid hematopoiesis and DC activation. An Indian scientist Subhadha Chiplunkar presented novel findings on Notch and its role in regulating BGJ398 mouse the anti-tumor effector functions of γδ T lymphocytes. Joshy Jacob (USA) showed that CD28 expressed on T cells plays an important part in the regulation of short- and long-lived plasma cells.
The last talk Uroporphyrinogen III synthase of this symposium was delivered by Satyajit Rath (India) who described the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif) in regulating death in the T-cell lineage. The second parallel symposium focused on host-pathogen interactions and started with the talk of Guna Karupiah (Australia), who showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an anti-inflammatory role in the host response to Ectromelia virus (ECTV) infection. The lecture of Gennaro de Libero (Switzerland) discussed thelarge number of T cells that recognize non-peptide antigens presented by non-MHC molecules, and the involvement of these T-cell populations in infections and their functional capacities. Thereafter three Indian scientists Dipendra K Mitra, Javed Agrewal and Natrajan Krishnamurthy working in the field of immunology of tuberculosis presented the results of their most recent work. Dipendra Mitra provided an overview of the T-cell response in human tuberculosis, Javed Agrewala showed that the lipidated promiscuous peptide restrains the progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by activating innate and prolonging adaptive immunity.