The last two master lectures of the Congress were delivered by Xu

The last two master lectures of the Congress were delivered by Xuetao Cao (China) and Reinhold Schmidt (Germany). The former described the innate signaling pathways and their role in immune regulation. Xuetao Cao discussed TLRs and RLHs and the miRNA-mediated

regulation of innate this website and adaptive immune response by IFN expression and signaling. Reinhold Schmidt described the role of autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases and defects in antibody receptor in immune response inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Reinhold Schmidt showed that the function of FcγR III and IV are each essential to trigger FcγR linker for activation of T-cell-dependent signals that drives C5a production in the Arthus reaction. The master lectures of the morning each day were followed by three parallel sessions of theme-based symposia. Symposium one focused on immune regulatory networks and started with

the talk of Yousuke Takahama (Japan), who provided an overview of T lymphocyte repertoire formation in the selective thymic microenvironment. Following this, Hannes Stockinger (Austria) presented the work of his group on a new ultrasensitive live cell-imaging technique for studying immune reactions, which made effective use of the visualization of lipid rafts in living cells for the first time. Another speaker Paola Castagnoli (Singapore) highlighted the role of NFAT signaling in myeloid hematopoiesis and DC activation. An Indian scientist Subhadha Chiplunkar presented novel findings on Notch and its role in regulating BGJ398 mouse the anti-tumor effector functions of γδ T lymphocytes. Joshy Jacob (USA) showed that CD28 expressed on T cells plays an important part in the regulation of short- and long-lived plasma cells.

The last talk Uroporphyrinogen III synthase of this symposium was delivered by Satyajit Rath (India) who described the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif) in regulating death in the T-cell lineage. The second parallel symposium focused on host-pathogen interactions and started with the talk of Guna Karupiah (Australia), who showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an anti-inflammatory role in the host response to Ectromelia virus (ECTV) infection. The lecture of Gennaro de Libero (Switzerland) discussed thelarge number of T cells that recognize non-peptide antigens presented by non-MHC molecules, and the involvement of these T-cell populations in infections and their functional capacities. Thereafter three Indian scientists Dipendra K Mitra, Javed Agrewal and Natrajan Krishnamurthy working in the field of immunology of tuberculosis presented the results of their most recent work. Dipendra Mitra provided an overview of the T-cell response in human tuberculosis, Javed Agrewala showed that the lipidated promiscuous peptide restrains the progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by activating innate and prolonging adaptive immunity.

In another study reporting molecular characterization of Cryptosp

In another study reporting molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolated from humans and animals in Iran, Meamar et al. identified Cryptosporidium in 8 out of 15 isolates from AIDS patients, seven of which they identified as C.parvum and one as C.hominis (18). Berenji et al. conducted a study in pediatric patients with lymphatic and hematological malignancies in Mashhad (center of Khorasan Razavi province, north-west Iran)

hospitals and detected 22%Cryptosporidium infections overall, with a prevalence of 19% in patients with ALL, 2% with AML and 1% with NHL (16). In a case-control study, Sharif et al. identified 5%Cryptosporidium buy Erlotinib infections overall, including in 3% of patients with ALL, 1%

of those who had received bone marrow transplants and 1% with find more NHL (17). Using 18s rRNA gene amplification and sequencing, Meamar et al. evaluated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium genotypes in HIV-positive and -negative patients and identified that 88.9% of HIV infected individuals were infected with C. parvum and 11.9% with C. hominis, whereas in HIV negative patients 62.5% were infected with C. parvum and 37.5% with C. hominis (18). Thus, the reported prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in Iranian immunocompromised patients ranges between 1.5% and 22% with a mean of 7%. It is well documented that, in the Middle East, C. parvum is the dominant species both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals (15, 19, 20). In the present study, we found no sex difference in the frequency

of cryptosporidiosis. However, patients older than 30 years had a higher risk of this infection. Similar age related increases in Cryptosporidium infection have previously been reported (21), but this may be because Ribonucleotide reductase there are few immunocompromised patients younger than 30 years. In relation to the clinical features of Cryptosporidium infection, we found that diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, dehydration, vomiting and nausea were significantly associated with Cryptosporidium infection. Manabe et al. and a review by Hunter et al. have also reported a high prevalence of these clinical symptoms (4, 22). In some studies, C. hominis was associated with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and general malaise, whereas C. parvum and other species were associated with diarrhea only (7). However, in the present study we found no differences between Cryptosporidium genotypes in severity of clinical manifestations, which is possibly because all study patients were immunosuppressed. Other microbial infections occurred more frequently in Cryptosporidium infected patients, particularly in those with HIV. Immune-suppression, especially when advanced, is a major risk factor for existence of co-pathogens in these individuals (4, 22).

To date, the enhancement of Ab synthesis mediated by IFN-β treatm

To date, the enhancement of Ab synthesis mediated by IFN-β treatment is not resulting in an excessive Ig production or in an induction of auto-Abs (data not shown and [46]). Rather, this therapy restores via monocyte-mediated bystander mechanisms the correct TLR7 responsiveness of MS-derived B cells, which in this way fully acquire the capacity to mature into Ig-producing cells, similar to HDs. In this

scenario, the study from Warrington et al. [47] is of great interest that demonstrates how naturally occurring polyclonal human Abs (in particular IgM) can strongly promote Selleckchem Saracatinib remyelination inducing a transient Ca2+ influx in myelin-forming cells. Thus, the ability of IFN-β therapy to induce polyclonal Abs (and in particular IgM) with potential remyelinating activity reveals another mechanism of protection possibly mediated by this drug, that could lead to amelioration of see more neurological symptoms in MS patients. An additional aspect to take into account from our findings is that the deficient TLR7-induced IgM and IgG production observed in MS patients might correlate with worsening of disease or impaired immune responses against infections with TLR7-recognized RNA viruses, such as influenza, or upon vaccination. Many studies have been conducted in this regard. Different groups have reported that the risk of relapse is increased in individuals with MS bacterial or viral infections [48, 49]. In the case of also influenza,

it was shown that the reduction of infection episodes leads to a lower number of exacerbations in MS sufferers. In a study with 180 RRMS patients, 33% of individuals, who became infected with this virus, developed an acute relapse within 6 weeks [50]. However, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies during the past decade have shown that influenza vaccination of MS patients neither increases the relapse rate nor worsens the course of disease [51]. Indeed, the administration

of standard vaccines in MS patients is considered safe worldwide, it follows the same recommendations as in healthy adults and actually should be recommended to MS patients in order to avoid attacks of the disease [52]. Having all this in mind, it cannot be excluded that our data on the reduced level of secreted Abs in response to TLR7 stimulation can have a role in the exacerbation of relapses observed in MS-affected individuals along episodes of influenza infection. The increasing recognition that viruses, and in particular EBV, can be etiological factors driving the development of MS or other autoimmune diseases in genetically susceptible individuals further strengthens the potential of administering anti-viral therapies to people affected by these disorders [12]. In line with this view, the increased TLR7 gene expression observed upon IFN-β might be part of a specific antiviral program induced by this cytokine that could counteract dysregulated responses to viral infection in MS patients.

Further studies are needed to determine if these findings can be

Further studies are needed to determine if these findings can be applied to increase both the efficacy and efficiency of the treatment of PV in the clinical setting. This work was supported by a grant from Tel Aviv University. Nothing to disclose. “
“This study examines adenosine 5′-triphosphate-binding

cassette (ABC) transporters as a potential therapeutic target in dendritic cell (DC) modulation under hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Functional capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) (mixed lymphocyte reaction: MLR) and maturation of iDCs were evaluated in the presence or absence of specific ABC-transporter inhibitors. Monocyte-derived DCs were cultured in the presence of interleukin (IL)-4/granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Their Kinase Inhibitor Library nmr maturation under hypoxia or LPS conditions was evaluated by assessing the expression of maturation phenotypes using flow cytometry. selleck screening library The effect of ABC transporters on DC maturation was determined using specific inhibitors for multi-drug resistance (MDR1) and multi-drug resistance proteins (MRPs). Depending on their maturation status to elicit T cell alloresponses, the functional

capacity of DCs was studied by MLR. Mature DCs showed higher P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression with confocal microscopy. Up-regulation of maturation markers was observed in hypoxia and LPS-DC, defining two different DC subpopulation profiles, plasmacytoid versus conventional-like, respectively, and different cytokine release T helper type 2 (Th2) versus Th1, depending on the stimuli. Furthermore, hypoxia-DCs induced more B lymphocyte proliferation than control-iDC (56% versus 9%), while LPS-DCs induced more CD8-lymphocyte proliferation (67% versus 16%). ABC transporter-inhibitors strongly abrogated DC maturation [half maximal Tryptophan synthase inhibitory concentration (IC50):

P-glycoprotein inhibition using valspodar (PSC833) 5 μM, CAS 115104-28-4 (MK571) 50 μM and probenecid 2·5 μM], induced significantly less lymphocyte proliferation and reduced cytokine release compared with stimulated-DCs without inhibitors. We conclude that diverse stimuli, hypoxia or LPS induce different profiles in the maturation and functionality of DC. Pgp appears to play a role in these DC events. Thus, ABC-transporters emerge as potential targets in immunosuppressive therapies interfering with DCs maturation, thereby abrogating innate immune response when it is activated after ischaemia. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells whose differentiation, migration and activities are linked intrinsically to the microenvironment. The capacity of DCs to activate and regulate T cell responses is acquired during a complex differentiation and maturation programme [1, 2]. DCs originate in bone marrow, and at an immature stage (iDC) they migrate through diseased peripheral tissue before reaching their final destination in the lymph node [1, 3, 4].

The lower limit appears in this case to be –40 cm and unless we a

The lower limit appears in this case to be –40 cm and unless we allow backward jumping, that’s not very likely! Although the standard deviation remains a valid estimate of variation [1], it is less helpful for distributions that are not symmetric, and there are alternative methods for analysis that are perhaps more appropriate. Non-symmetric distributions can be presented using median and the quartile values. For example, in Figure 2, the ‘skewed’ sample can be

described as having an estimated median of 141 with an inter-quartile range of (122, 142), where 122 and 142 are the first and third quartile values (the 25 and 75 percentiles). Alternatively, we could transform the data into a form that makes it more symmetric. Values that have been calculated as a ratio, for example as ‘% control’, can INK 128 be highly skewed. This is a common method of presenting data in many experiments. In such cases, the range of possible results may be limited in the lower values (it may be impossible to obtain values that are less than 0%), but not for the larger values (easy to obtain 150%, or 300%). In such cases, the logarithm of the values may be more convenient for analysis. Rank order tests such as the Wilcoxon do not specifically test for

equality of median values, so transforming the data to a more symmetrical distribution may have an advantage. However, when presenting data in a figure, it can be helpful to present in the original scale, as a logarithmic scale is Fulvestrant cell line less easy to appreciate (as can be seen in Figure 2). Although such suggestions have not received universal acceptance, and valid differences of opinion have been voiced, most guidelines advocate these procedures. An easily applied checklist for authors and editors will help their incorporation into practice. “
“Microcirculation (2010) 17, 333–347. doi: 10.1111/j.1549-8719.2010.00034.x Objective:  Chronic and acute ischemic diseases—peripheral artery disease, coronary

artery disease, stroke—result in tissue damage unless blood flow is maintained or restored in a timely manner. Mice of different strains recover from arteriolar ligation (by increasing collateral blood flow) at different speeds. We quantify the spatio-temporal patterns of microvascular Phospholipase D1 network remodeling following arteriolar ligation in different mouse strains to better understand inter-individual variability. Methods:  Whole-muscle spinotrapezius microvascular networks of mouse strains C57Bl/6, Balb/c and CD1 were imaged using confocal microscopy following ligation of feeding arterioles. Results:  Baseline arteriolar structures of C57Bl/6 and Balb/c mice feature heavily ramified arcades and unconnected dendritic trees, respectively. This network angioarchitecture identifies ischemia-protected and ischemia-vulnerable tissues; unlike C57Bl/6, downstream capillary perfusion in Balb/c spinotrapezius is lost following ligation.


are several strategies in course to develop new pro


are several strategies in course to develop new prophylactic drugs and vaccines based on inhibition of different processes of the viral life cycle, such as the fusion and replication. An efficient vaccine candidate has to promote the differentiation of T cells in an appropriate antiviral response to elicit the viral clearance. Until now, our knowledge was insufficient to understand the complete picture of hRSV infection but progress is promising an effective and safe vaccine available for the population most affected by this pathogen. This work was supported by grants FONDECYT no 1070352, FONDECYT no 1050979, FONDECYT no 1040349, FONDECYT no 1100926, FONDECYT no 1110397, FONDECYT no 1100971, FONDECYT no 1110604, FONDECYT no 1130996, CONICYT Proyecto de Inserción PLX4032 order de Capital HumanoAvanzado en la Academia no 791100015 and Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy (P09-016-F), Grant from La Région Pays De La Loire through the ‘Chaird’excellence program’, Grant ‘NouvellesEquipes-nouvellesthématiques’from the La Région

Pays De La Loire, INSERM CDD grant. The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. “
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B (gB) and acute rejection after transplantation. Seventy-seven consecutive renal transplant recipients in a D + /R+ setting were studied. Biopsy-proven rejection occurred in 35% of the recipients. Among these recipients, 85% had antibodies against CMV gB. The rate of acute rejection was significantly higher in recipients with antibodies against gB than in those without them. Antibodies against gB can be a useful predictor of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients in a D + /R+ setting. Renal transplantation is a most valuable treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, offering a long-term survival benefit compared with patients on dialysis Parvulin [1]. However,

acute rejection episodes are an important risk factor for functional deterioration of solid-organ transplants [2]. Although novel immunosuppressive regimens have reduced graft loss, susceptibility to infections has increased. Viral replication after transplantation may contribute to reduced graft function and survival through the associated inflammation and cytokine release [3]. Uncontrolled replication of viruses such as adenovirus, CMV, polyomavirus BK, John Cunningham virus, parvovirus B19 and human herpes virus-6 and -7 triggers direct and/or indirect effect in transplant recipients [4]. Among these viruses, CMV is the most important pathogen affecting kidney allograft recipients.

The most considerable changes occurred early after infection (day

The most considerable changes occurred early after infection (day 1.5) and waned during late infection (day

7) [41]. At the early time point (day 1.5), NK cells were activated, and genes encoding inflammatory (Cd69, Ifih1, Ifitm3), proliferation (Il2ra), and effector (Ifng, GzmB) function were upregulated [41]. Meanwhile, genes encoding the suppressors of cytokine signaling Socs1 and Socs3 were also highly expressed at this early time point to avoid uncontrolled inflammation. At the late stage of the infection (day 7), Ly49H+ NK cells achieved the peak of clonal expansion with higher expression of genes encoding cell cycle or proliferation-related genes (including cell-division cycle genes and MKI67). A contraction phase then occurs in which most effector Ly49H+ NK cells undergo cell death and leave see more behind long-lived memory NK cells (day 27) that persist for months [41]. These memory NK cells are able PCI-32765 chemical structure to mount a robust secondary response against previously encountered pathogens and have higher IFN-γ transcripts than naïve NK cells [82]. At day 27 after infection, genes including Ly6c1, Fasl, and Casp1 were more highly expressed in memory than in naïve NK cells [41]. Thus, profiling the transcriptional dynamics within NK cells during MCMV infection has shed light on the potential cellular

processes that may be involved in the differentiation of naïve NK cells into effector and memory cells. Resting NK cells have minimal cytotoxic function; upon activation, NK cells gain the ability to kill target cells using the granule exocytosis pathway immediately upon recognition of transformed or infected cells through the interactions between receptors and ligands. At the molecular level, resting human CD56bright and CD56dim NK cell subpopulations as well as mouse NK cells are in a persistently “alerted” state containing abundant granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin at the mRNA level, but contain only granzyme A at the protein level [29, 41, 43, 72]. Upon cytokine activation in vitro, NK cells drastically increase their

granzyme B and perforin protein levels without major changes in the abundance of their respective 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase mRNA [41, 72]. The same pattern of regulation occurred in NK cells in vivo after MCMV infection [72]. These data suggest that resting NK cells have minimal cytotoxic function due to a block in perforin and granzyme B mRNA translation and that NK-cell activation functions to release this block, although the specific mechanism is unknown [72]. Overall, the genes overexpressed in activated NK cells confer not only potent cytotoxic ability but also immunomodulatory function to these activated NK cells [42]. The gene expression profiling of NK cells in resting and stimulated states provide us with a better understanding of NK-cell function and improve our understanding of the molecular mediators underlying NK-cell activation.

Hyperphoshorylated IRAK-1 and activated TRAF6, in turn, induce tr

Hyperphoshorylated IRAK-1 and activated TRAF6, in turn, induce transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) [15]. The TAK1 multiprotein signalosome recruits the IκB kinase (IKK) complex resulting in final activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB family members [16]. Recently, IRAK4- and MyD88-deficiency were described Rapamycin chemical structure as autosomal recessive disorders. The clinical picture of these primary immunodeficiencies is indistinguishable and, thus, requires a genetic diagnosis. Patients deficient in the MyD88 adapter molecule

or the IRAK4 kinase fail to activate NF-κB and display an impaired cytokine response to nearly all TLR agonists, except for TLR3 ligand poly(I:C). Furthermore, see more these patients

have an increased susceptibility to infections caused by pyogenic encapsulated bacteria, mainly Gram positive Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus [17-20]. These clinical cases highlight the importance of both MyD88 and IRAK4 in TLR-mediated immune responses. Although it is well established that IRAK4 plays a crucial role in the control of innate immune response, many aspects of IRAK4 deficiency and its precise function in MyD88-dependent signaling during bacterial infections remain elusive. Analysis of the human IRAK4 structure demonstrated the presence of an active Ser/Thr kinase domain [21]. Moreover, Cheng et al. [22] reported an autocatalytic phosphorylation of IRAK4 protein, Elongation factor 2 kinase suggesting that IRAK4 acts as the first proximal kinase, which then phosphorylates IRAK1. Nevertheless, only little is known about its precise catalytic function or its enzymatic targets and interaction partners. The scope

of this study was, therefore, to assess the function of the IRAK4 kinase in anti-bacterial host defense in human peripheral blood monocytes. Interestingly, we found that IRAK4 modulates TLR-induced cytokine synthesis, thus representing a switch between pro- and anti-inflammation. This prompted us to clarify the molecular mechanism and our data highlight the involvement of the PKB/Akt pathway in the induction of TLR-triggered IL-10 secretion. Patients deficient in IRAK4 have been described to be more susceptible to infections with pneumococci and staphylococci [18]. In views of the clinical implications of IRAK4-deficiency we studied the function of IRAK4 in anti-bacterial host defense in human monocytes. For this purpose, we established an siRNA-based approach for IRAK4 knockdown, achieving significantly reduced irak4 mRNA levels as well as diminished IRAK4 translation (Fig. 1A and B). MyD88 silencing did not affect IRAK4 expression, thus proving specificity of the knock-down (Supporting Information Fig. 1A). Notably, cell viability was unaffected by transfection (Supporting Information Fig. 1B).


population of CD3-positive T cells in the spleen or m


population of CD3-positive T cells in the spleen or mesenteric lymph node was reduced by ~ 35–45% in T-cell-specific Stat3-deficient mice (Fig. 2a). Absolute total splenocyte numbers were counted using a haemocytometer, and T-cell and non-T-cell numbers were drug discovery calculated according to flow cytometry results. The total number of splenocytes was significantly reduced in T-cell-specific Stat3-deficient mice (Fig. 2b). The number of CD3-positive T cells was reduced to a greater degree than that of splenocytes in T-cell-specific Stat3-deficient mice; non-T-cell numbers in the spleen were similar in both groups (Fig. 2c). This implies that the reduced volume, weight and cell number in spleens of T-cell-specific Stat3-deleted mice was a result of the T-cell deficiency. Because it has been reported that Lck-driven Cre expression is toxic for developing T cells,[23] we also compared the splenic volumes, the proportion and the absolute number of T cells in spleens

from Stat3WT/WT Lck-CRE−/− and Stat3WT/WT Lck-CRE+/− to exclude the possibility that our results were attributable to the off-target effect of Cre-recombinase to developing T cells. Both the volume of spleens and the absolute number of T cells showed only minimal decrease in Stat3WT/WT Lck-CRE+/− mice compared with Stat3WT/WT Lck-CRE−/− mice at 8 weeks (see Supplementary material, Fig. S2a–c), while the significant T-cell depletion was observed in spleens from Stat3fl/fl Lck-CRE+/− mice compared with Ulixertinib nmr those from Stat3WT/fl Lck-CRE+/− mice (Fig. S2d,e). Furthermore, 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase we analysed the subpopulation of thymocytes in Stat3WT/WT Lck-CRE−/− and Stat3WT/WT Lck-CRE+/− mice (Fig. S2f–h). Both the population and the absolute number of double-positive, CD4 and CD8 SP cells were unvarying between CRE−/− and CRE+/− mice at 6 months (Fig. S2f–h). These results indicate that the T-cell deficiency in Stat3fl/fl Lck-CRE+/− mice largely

resulted from Stat3 deletion, rather than from the off-target toxicity of Cre-recombinase. We next investigated the proportion of CD4- or CD8-positive T cells in spleen and lymph node. Both the CD4 and CD8 populations were considerably decreased in the Stat3-deleted group (Fig. 2d–f). Also, the population and the absolute number of CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells, which are regarded as regulatory T cells, were notably decreased in spleens from Stat3-deficient mice when compared with the control group (Fig. 2g,h). To observe the variation of naive or effector/memory T-cell population in peripheral T cells from wild type or Stat3 knockout mice, we performed flow cytometry analyses with CD4, CD8, CD62L and CD44 staining (Fig. 3). The CD62Lhigh and CD44low population in both CD4- and CD8-positive T lymphocytes, which has been identified as naive T cells, was considerably reduced in splenocytes and lymph node cells from the Stat3-deficient group (Fig.

OPG is secreted by osteoblasts within the stem cell niche 33 and

OPG is secreted by osteoblasts within the stem cell niche 33 and inhibits the differentiation of osteoclasts 34. Induction of cell proliferation does not belong to its known qualities. The CXC chemokines have well-documented neutrophil chemotactic, angiogenic and mitogenic properties. Among these, the Gro proteins comprise a family of melanoma growth stimulatory factors. They can support tumor genesis (Gro 1, 35), angiogenesis and malignant cell proliferation (Gro 2 and 3 36, also termed MIP-2α and 2β). The GRO genes were originally isolated from transformed fibroblasts.

They belong to a superfamily of genes comprising, amongst others, platelet factor 4 and IL-8 37. In the past, none of the Gro proteins suppressed myeloid progenitor formation or synergized with other suppressive chemokines 31; Gro 1 and 2 instead blocked suppressive effects caused by members of the same superfamily. In our assays, Gro 3 caused a significant proliferation of CD34+ cells, whereas Gro 1 and Gro 2

had no effect. Cell expansion rates of Gro 3 were only topped by those of IL-32. IL-32 was first identified as an inducer of TNF-α 38 with an important role in inflammatory diseases 39 and viral 40, 41 and bacterial infections 42. Our data suggest that IL-32 alone can induce the expansion of HPCs leading to a ten-fold higher cumulative cell number after 3 wk in JQ1 ic50 culture and a two-fold higher cell number after 1 wk; the expanded cells retained the CD34 antigen and a stem cell-like morphology. Furthermore, their plating efficiency was 1.5 times higher than that of HPCs cultured in SCF, while the

total numbers of CFU-GM colonies were equal in both groups. The presence of IL-32 in vascular ECs was confirmed recently 43, 44, though controversial opinions exist as to whether it is a secreted protein or not 45, 46. We, too, share the opinion that IL-32 might not be secreted or produced to detectable levels by naive ECs, as the signal intensities in our microarray analysis and mRNA HSP90 in non-stimulated ECs were rather low. Upon treatment with IL-1β, however, IL-32 can be detected in the supernatant at unprecedented high amounts 43. It is very unlikely that this amount should come solely from apoptotic ECs, though this has been proposed 45. As IL-32 was found to be secreted by lymphocytes 47 and is listed within the GO category “extracellular space”, stimulated ECs could secrete it as well. In synergism with the nucleotide oligomerization domains (NOD) 1 and 2, IL-32 initiates caspase 3 and induces the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 48. Both domains were most recently identified on BM-derived HPCs 49. This also explains why monoclonal antibodies against IL-32 did not completely inhibit its expansive effect: the complex of IL-32/αIL-32 could still activate nucleotide oligomerization domains and promote HPC expansion. As IL-32 can do both, i.e.