Within the bone marrow (BM), the Genista mutation resulted in a slight GDC0068 increase of monopoiesis and in a block of terminal granulopoiesis. This block occurred just after the metamyelocytic stage and resulted in the generation of small numbers of atypical CD11b+Ly-6Gint neutrophils, the nuclear morphology of which resembled that of mature WT neutrophils. Unexpectedly, once released from the BM, these atypical neutrophils contributed to induce mild forms of autoantibody-induced arthritis and of immune complex-mediated lung alveolitis. They additionally failed to provide resistance to acute bacterial infection. Our study demonstrates that a hypomorphic mutation in the Gfi1 transcriptional repressor results
in a novel form of neutropenia characterized by a split pattern of functional responses, reflecting the distinct thresholds required for eliciting neutrophil-mediated inflammatory and anti-infectious responses.”
“This paper unpacks
the slippery slope argument as it pertains to assisted death.\n\nThe assisted-death regimes of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and the states of Washington and Oregon are discussed and examined with respect to the slippery slope analytical rubric. In addition to providing a preliminary explanation of how the slippery Y-27632 order slope argument has been academically defined and constructed, the paper examines assisted-death models from the perspective of considering what might exist at the top and at the bottom of the slippery slope. It also explores the nature and scope of safeguards implemented to avoid slippage, and shows that what lies at the top and bottom of the slippery slope may be different from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. After identifying some Bafilomycin A1 purchase of the recent concerns that have arisen within each of the jurisdictions (concerns that might be viewed by some as evidence of slide), the paper concludes by making
note of certain critical issues in the current assisted-death debate that merit deeper examination.”
“Poly(arylene ether nitriles) (PEN) with pendant phthalonitrile groups (PEN?CN) were obtained via the Yamazaki-Higashi phosphorylation route of 4-(4-aminophenoxy)phthalonitrile (APN) with acid-contained PEN (PEN?COOH) in the presence of CaCl2. The chemical structure and molecular weight of PEN?CN were characterized by 1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Gel permeation chromatography. The synthesized PEN?CN had superior solubility in polar organic solvent and can be easily processed into thin films from the solutions of N-methylpyrrolidone, dimethylsulfoxide, N,N’-dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, and tetrahydrofuran. Compared with PEN?COOH, PEN?CN showed higher thermal stability with 5% weight loss temperatures (T5%) up to 430 degrees C. The glass transition temperature of PEN?CN was improved from 211 to 235 degrees C measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Data were collected between March 2007 and January 2008.\n\nFindings.\n\nExperienced nurses were statistically significantly more confident than students but no more accurate. Whilst students tended towards under-confidence, experienced nurses were over-confident. Experienced nurses were no more calibrated than students. Experienced nurses were no better at discriminating between correct and incorrect judgements than students. These patterns were exacerbated when nurses and students were extremely over-confident or extremely under-confident.\n\nConclusion.\n\nNurses were systematically biased towards over/under-confidence in their
critical event risk assessment judgements. In particular, experienced nurses were no better calibrated than their student counterparts; with student under-confidence countered by experienced nurses’ greater susceptibility selleckchem to over-confidence.”
“This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of coronary arterial profiles from normal dogs (11 animals) and canines (six dogs) with experimental myocardial infarction (MI) induced by ligation of the left coronary artery (LCA). Blood velocity of the LCA and right coronary artery (RCA) were evaluated following transthoracic pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography.
The LCA was observed as an infundibular selleck products shape, located adjacent to the sinus of Valsalva. The RCA appeared as a tubular structure located 12 o’clock relative to the aorta. In normal dogs, the LCA and RCA mean peak diastolic velocities were 20.84 +/- 3.24 and 19.47 +/- 2.67 cm/sec, respectively. The LCA and RCA mean diastolic deceleration times were 0.91 +/- 0.14 sec and 1.13 +/- 0.20 sec, respectively. In dogs with MI, the LCA had significantly (p smaller than 0.01) lower peak velocities (14.82 +/- 1.61 cm/sec) than the RCA (31.61 +/- 2.34 cm/sec). The RCA had a significantly (p smaller than 0.01) rapid diastolic deceleration time (0.71 +/- 0.06 sec) than that found in the LCA (1.02 +/- 0.22 sec) of MI dogs. In conclusion,
these profiles ZD1839 may serve as a differential factor for evaluating cardiomyopathy in dogs.”
“Assessment of isotopic compositions at the base of food webs is a prerequisite for using stable isotope analysis to assess foraging locations and trophic positions of marine organisms. Our study represents a unique application of stable-isotope analyses across multiple trophic levels (primary producer, primary consumer and tertiary consumer) and over a large spatial scale in two pelagic marine ecosystems. We found that delta N-15 values of particulate organic matter (POM), barnacles and phenylalanine from the muscle tissue of yellowfin tuna all showed similar spatial patterns. This consistency suggests that isotopic analysis of any of these can provide a reasonable proxy for isotopic variability at the base of the food web.
PD98059 in of LV size (LV end-diastolic diameter LV end-systolic diameter [LV-ESD]), LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and mitral regurgitation (MR) were obtained at baseline and after 4 weeks of monitoring or pacing in all dogs except one who had lead dislodgement.\n\nResults: In the control group (n = 4), no significant changes in LV dimensions or function were noted. In the paced group (n = 6), LV-EDD and LV-ESD increased from 3.58 +/- 0.65 cm and 2.47 +/- 0.55 cm to 4.15 +/- 0.59 cm and 3.21 +/- 0.47 cm, respectively (P < 0.01). In addition, LVEF decreased from 60 +/- 7% to 46 +/- 9% (P < 0.05). No changes in MR were noted.\n\nConclusion: We have shown that coupled pacing simulating ventricular bigeminy was feasible and resulted in increased LV dimensions and decreased LV function. By controlling the percentage of pacing, the coupling interval and the location of the pacing lead, this new model will allow the assessment of the relative roles of these variables in the development of ectopy-induced cardiomyopathy. (PACE 2011; 34:291-295)”
“Long-term storage of articular cartilage (AC) has excited great interest due to the practical surgical significance of this tissue. The liquidus-tracking (LT) method developed by Pegg et al. (2006)  for vitreous preservation of AC achieved reasonable
survival of post-warming chondrocytes in situ, but the design of the entire procedure was more dependent on trial and error. Mathematical modeling would help to better understand the LT process, and thereby make Taselisib price possible improvements to attain higher cell survival. Mass transfer plays a dominant role in the LT Anlotinib clinical trial process. In the present study, a diffusion model
based on the free-volume theory and the Flory-Huggins thermodynamics theory was developed to predict the permeation of dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) into AC. A comparison between the predicted mean concentration of Me2SO in the AC disc and the experimental data over wide temperature and concentration ranges [-30 to 37 degrees C, 10 to 64.5% (w/w)] shows that the developed model can accurately describe the permeation of Me-2-SO into AC [coefficient of determination (R-2): 0.951-1.000, mean relative error (MRE): 0.8-12.8%]. With this model, the spatial and temporal distribution of Me2SO in the AC disc during a loading/unloading process can be obtained. Application of the model to Pegg et al.’s LT procedure revealed that the liquidus line is virtually not followed for the center part of the AC disc. The presently developed model will be a useful tool in the analysis and design of the LT method for vitreous preservation of AC. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of reviewOptic pathway gliomas (OPGs) and orbitofacial plexiform neurofibromas are two of the more common ophthalmic manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1.
Our data also reveal that the antiviral effect of A3GY124A, a previously described A3G virus-packaging mutant,
was completely rescued when the mutant was fused with R88. In an attempt to identify the most potent R88-A3G fusion proteins against HIV-1 infection, we introduced two Vif-binding mutants (D128K and P129A) into the R88-A3G fusion protein and showed that both R88-A3GD128K and R88-A3GP129A possessed very potent anti-HIV Entinostat price activity. When R88-A3GP129A was transduced into CD4(+) C8166 T cells, HIV-1 infection was completely abolished for at least 24 days. In an attempt to further test the anti-HIV effect of this mutant in primary human HIV susceptible cells, we introduced R88-A3GP129A into human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and macrophages with a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV2/5) vector. The results demonstrate that a significant inhibition of HIV-1 infection was observed in the transduced PBMCs and macrophages. These results provide evidence for the feasibility of an R88-A3G based anti-HIV strategy. The further optimization of this
system will contribute to the development of new anti-HIV gene therapy approaches.”
“Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant diseases in the world. Interferon regulator factor 2 (IRF-2), an interferon regulatory factor, has been known to act as an oncogene in distinct types of cancer. In this study, we found that the expression of IRF-2 was GSK2126458 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor up-regulated in primary pancreatic cancer samples and associated with
tumor size, differentiation, tumor-node-metastasis stage, and survival of the patients. In pancreatic cancer cells, knockdown on the expression of IRF-2 inhibited cell growth in the liquid culture and on the soft agar. Mechanistically, IRF-2 modulated the growth of pancreatic cancer cells through regulating proliferation and apoptosis effectors, such as cyclin D1 and BAX. Collectively, these results suggest that IRF-2 plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer and down-regulation of IRF-2 would be a new treatment target for pancreatic cancer.”
“Objective. We assessed cardiac conduction properties in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA).\n\nMethods. Electrocardiogram Elafibranor solubility dmso (ECG) scans of 92 patients with PsA were compared to 92 age and sex matched nonpsoriatic, nonarthritic patients from general practice serving as controls.\n\nResults. PR interval was found to be significantly longer in the PsA group compared to controls, 159.6 +/- 21 ms versus 151.3 +/- 26 ms, respectively (p = 0.021). No statistical difference was found with respect to the QRS interval or other atrial or ventricular conduction disturbances studied. No correlation was found between the PR interval and disease duration or PsA Subtype. The use of nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs did not affect the PR interval.
01) from days 1 to 2 of culture and became undetectable by day 3 and basal progesterone production increased (p < 0.05) from day 1 through day 4 of the culture. Although there was no effect of FSH on day 1 of the culture, FSH at 2, 4, 8 and 16 ng/ml increased (p < 0.05) oestradiol-17 beta production by granulosa cells from small follicles on day 2. Progesterone secretion was increased (p < 0.05) by all doses of FSH on all days of culture. All doses of LH had no effect on oestradiol-17 beta or progesterone production by granulosa cells from small follicles on any day of the culture. The results of this study demonstrate a serum-free culture system for buffalo granulosa cells and stimulatory effect
of FSH but not LH on steroid hormone production by buffalo granulosa cells under these conditions.”
“The www.selleckchem.com/products/blz945.html goal of the present work was to separate zones of pickling cucumber field cultivation
in Poland according to the various degrees GSK2126458 mouse of climatic risk The study used 40 years of (1966 2005) data from 28 experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing The data characterised the course of the growth development cucumber crop productivity and also the agrotechnical dates Additionally the work considered agrometeorological data of 7 development stages of the analysed plant sunshine duration soil temperature at a height of 5 cm air temperature at a height of 2 m and 5 cm above ground level and atmospheric precipitation The agrometeorological data was collected from 53 meteorological stations in the Polish network of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management Weather yield regression equations were used to determine unfavourable agiometeoroloycal elements which is the best way to determined the quantity of the cucumber total and marketable yield The highest climatic risk of pickling cucumber field cultivation occurred in about 7% of Poland s area This is the area covering the southwestern southeastern the northern and northeastern parrs of the country In these areas very high occurrence frequency of agrometeorological elements was noted
These elements were air and sod temperatures that were too low during KU-57788 the whole growing season and too short of a duration of the period without frost lasting <= 120 days”
“The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of Er:YAG laser to remove root canal filling materials. The root canals of 21 extracted human anterior teeth were enlarged, and then obturated with gutta-percha points and sealer by lateral condensation. Filling materials were removed from root canals using Er:YAG laser irradiation at three energy output levels (30, 40, and 50 mJ/pulse), and the corresponding time required for material removal at each energy output level was recorded. The amount of remaining filling material and the degree of dentin ablation in the canal wall were assessed using microfocus X-ray CT before and after removal.
Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2522-2528. (c) 2014 SETAC”
“Objectives: Cardiac steatosis is a manifestation of ectopic fat deposition and is associated with obesity. The impact of chronic cocaine use on obesity measures and on the relationship between obesity measures and cardiac steatosis is not well-characterized. The objectives of this study were to compare obesity measures in chronic cocaine users and nonusers, and to explore which factors, in addition to obesity measures, are associated with myocardial triglyceride in African Americans, using noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Methods: Between June 2004 and January 2014, 180 healthy African American adults without HIV infection, hypertension, and diabetes LY411575 inhibitor were enrolled in an observational proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging study investigating factors associated with cardiac steatosis. Results: Among these 180 participants,
80 were chronic cocaine users and 100 were nonusers. The median age was 42 (interquartile range, 34-47) years. Obesity measures trended higher in cocaine users than in nonusers. The median myocardial triglyceride was 0.6% (interquartile range, 0.4%-1.1%). Among the factors investigated, years of cocaine use, leptin, and visceral fat were independently associated with myocardial triglyceride. Body mass index and visceral fat, which were significantly associated with myocardial triglyceride in noncocaine users, were not associated with myocardial triglyceride content in cocaine users. Conclusions: This study shows (1) cocaine users may have more fat than nonusers NVP-LDE225 supplier and BGJ398 cost (2) myocardial triglyceride is independently associated with duration of cocaine use, leptin, and visceral fat in all subjects, whereas leptin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,
but not visceral fat or body mass index, in cocaine users, suggesting that chronic cocaine use may modify the relationships between obesity measures and myocardial triglyceride.”
“Objective: To evaluate skin irritation and patch adhesiveness of a new weekly low-dose levonorgestrel (LNG) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) contraceptive patch (LNG/EE patch). Study design: This analysis was part of an open-label, parallel-group, multicenter, phase 3 study that randomized healthy women to the LNG/EE patch (one patch weekly for three consecutive weeks, followed by a patch-free week for 13 cycles) or to an oral contraceptive for six cycles followed by seven LNG/EE patch cycles. Participants selected patch application sites of abdomen, buttock or upper torso. Investigators rated patch adhesiveness and skin irritation using standardized scales. Participants rated skin irritation and itching daily using standardized scales and recorded patch fall-off on daily diary cards. Results: A total of 32,508 patches were applied (n= 127 3).
Notably, increased staining for each receptor was followed by statistically significant expression elevation of at least one of the other markers.\n\nOur results suggest that the selected cellular receptors are suitable for use as biomarkers
of survival and tumour progression in CRC. Furthermore, we provide additional evidence for receptor interaction, properly clarifying their importance, which could potentially lead to more effective anti-CRC regimens.”
“Compared to standard spoiled gradient echo (SPGR)-methods, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) provides quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) images with increased resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in clinically feasible acquisition see more times. The aim of this study was to acquire 3D high-resolution qMT-data to create standardized qMT-values of many single brain structures that might serve as a baseline for SYN-117 the future characterization of pathologies of the brain.\n\nQMT parameters, such as the fractional pool size (F), exchange rate (kf) and relaxation times of the free pool (T1, T2) were assessed
in a total of 12 white matter (WM) and 11 grey matter (GM) structures in 12 healthy volunteers with MT-sensitized bSSFP. Our results were compared with qMT-data from previous studies obtained with SPGR-methods using MT-sensitizing preparation pulses with significantly lower resolution.\n\nIn general, qMT-values were in good accordance with prior studies. As
expected, higher F and kf and lower relaxation times were observed in WM as compared to GM structures. However, many significant differences were observed within WM and GM regions and also between different regions of the same structure like in the internal capsule where the posterior limb showed significant higher kf than the anterior limb. Significant differences for all parameters were observed between subjects.\n\nIn contrast to previous studies, bSSFP allowed assessment of even small brain structures due to its high resolution. The observed differences from previous studies can partly be explained by the reduced partial volume effects. MT-sensitized bSSFP is an ideal candidate for qMT-analysis in the clinical routine as it provides high-resolution 3D qMT-data of even small brain structures in clinically feasible EPZ5676 ic50 acquisition times. The present qMT-data can serve as a reference for the characterization of cerebral diseases. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. The ability to access the methylation status for a large number of genes or the entire genome should greatly facilitate the understanding of the nature of gene regulation in cells, and epigenetic mechanism of interactions between cells and environment. Microarray and sequencing-based DNA methylation profiling technologies have been developed to meet this goal.
0-6.0) and absence of inorganic oxidants when using Ahlstrom paper. Also, analysis of the by-products shows their dependence on initial pH. The comparison of phenol removal efficiency shows that thin layers Cell Cycle inhibitor of TiO2
P25, deposited on glass, present the best photocatalytic activity. Several experiments performed with the same photocatalyst show that washing layers with pure water several times and drying at low temperature allow reactivation of the catalysts. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background and PurposeRecently, we demonstrated that the nucleus accumbens (NAC) is required for the acquisition and expression of relief memory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of NMDA receptors within the NAC in relief learning. Experimental ApproachThe NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5) was injected into the NAC. The effects of these injections on the acquisition and expression of relief memory, as well as on the reactivity to aversive electric stimuli, were tested. Key ResultsIntra-accumbal
AP-5 injections blocked learn more the acquisition but not the expression of relief memory. Furthermore, reactivity to aversive electric stimuli was not affected by the AP-5 injections. Conclusion and ImplicationThe present data indicate that NMDA-dependent plasticity within the NAC is crucial for the acquisition of relief memory.”
“We report on the magnetoresistance (MR) and electron transport
measurements observed PR-171 molecular weight on a single crystal magnetite nanowire prepared using a hydrothermal synthesis method. High-resolution electron microscopy revealed the single crystal magnetite nanowires with 80-120 nm thickness and up to 8 mu m in length. Magnetic measurements showed the typical Verwey transition around 120K with a 100 Oe room temperature coercivity and 45 emu/g saturation magnetization, which are comparable to bulk magnetite. Electrical resistance measurements in 5-300K temperature range were performed by scanning gate voltage and varying applied magnetic field. Electrical resistivity of the nanowire was found to be around 5 x 10(-4) Omega m, slightly higher than the bulk and has activation energy of 0.07 eV. A negative MR of about 0.7% is observed for as-synthesized nanowires at 0.3 T applied field. MR scaled with increasing applied magnetic field representing the field-induced alignment of magnetic domain. These results are attributed to the spin-polarized electron transport across the antiphase boundaries, which implicate promising applications for nanowires in magnetoelectronics. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Density modification is a standard technique in macromolecular crystallography that can significantly improve an initial electron-density map. To obtain optimal results, the initial and density-modified map are combined.
This study analyzed the biological effects of Tat on peripheral blood monocyte-derived find more osteoclast differentiation. Tat enhances osteoclast differentiation and activity induced by RANKL plus M-CSF treatment increasing both the mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor, and TRAP expression and activity. These Tat-related biological effects may be related, at least in part, to the induction of c-fos expression and AP-1 activity. c-fos up-regulation was triggered by Tat when cell cultures were
co-treated with RANKL/M-CSF and an analysis of c-fos promoter with c-fos deletion mutant constructs disclosed specific c-fos promoter domains targeted by Tat. Together, these results show that Tat may be considered a viral factor positively modulating the osteoclastogenesis and then bone resorption activity suggesting a pathogenetic role of this viral protein in the HIV-related osteopenia/osteoporosis. (C) 2010 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The acquired gain-of-function V617F mutation in the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2(V617F)) is the main mutation involved in BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), but its effect on hematopoietic stem cells as a driver of disease emergence has been questioned. Therefore, we reinvestigated the role of endogenous expression of JAK2(V617F) on early steps of hematopoiesis GSI-IX mw as well as the effect of interferon-alpha (IFN alpha), which may target the JAK2(V617F) clone in humans by using knock-in mice with conditional expression of JAK2(V617F) in hematopoietic cells. These mice develop a MPN mimicking polycythemia vera with large amplification of myeloid mature and precursor cells, displaying erythroid endogenous growth and progressing to myelofibrosis. Interestingly, early hematopoietic compartments [Lin-, LSK, and SLAM (LSK/CD48-/CD150+)] increased with the age. Competitive repopulation assays demonstrated disease appearance and progressive
overgrowth of myeloid, Lin-, LSK, and SLAM cells, but not lymphocytes, from a low number of engrafted JAK2(V617F) SLAM cells. Finally, IFN alpha treatment prevented disease STA-9090 development by specifically inhibiting JAK2(V617F) cells at an early stage of differentiation and eradicating disease-initiating cells. This study shows that JAK2(V617F) in mice amplifies not only late but also early hematopoietic cells, giving them a proliferative advantage through high cell cycling and low apoptosis that may sustain MPN emergence but is lost upon IFN alpha treatment.”
“Background/Aim: Oxidative stress is known to be enhanced in hemodialysis patients, and one of its useful markers is plasma copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD). The increase in plasma Cu/Zn-SOD can be inhibited by orally administered lipid-soluble vitamin E. We examined the antioxidative effects of water-soluble vitamin C administered orally on Cu/Zn-SOD levels in hemodialysis patients.
The REE method Selonsertib is based on the correlation between reaction path-independent reaction energies and free energies of a series of analogous reactions. For human peroxiredoxin (Tpx-B), an antioxidant enzyme
that forms a sulfenic acid on one of its active-site cysteines during reactive oxygen scavenging, we found that the reduction potential depends on the composition of the active site and on the protonation state of the cysteine. Interaction with polar residues directs the RSO-/RS- reduction to a lower potential than the RSOH/RSH reduction. A conserved arginine that thermodynamically favors the sulfenylation reaction might be a good candidate to favor the reaction kinetics. The REE method is not limited to thiol sulfenylation, but can be broadly applied
to understand protein redox biology in general. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A systematic study was undertaken of the EPR of sodium hydroxide solutions of Benzoin, Anisoin and Thenoin in both ethanol and DMSO as well as their corresponding ionised species of varying colours. In all cases, the EPR consist of symmetric spectra, resulting from the generation of a free radical-anion. Furthermore, theoretical DFT methods were applied in order to study the radical anions, revealing the reason for the colour change in the solutions and in the case of benzoin, found to be related to the interaction between the cis and trans-isomers with the molecules in the two solvents. We have defined the structure of the cis-isomer and for the first time we have described how the adduct between the cis-isomer and MAPK inhibitor Combretastatin A4 chemical structure the solvent molecule, results in a stable conformer. This corresponds with the EPR results which indicated a significant difference between the cis and trans-isomers. Both the theoretical and experimental results inspired similar descriptions of the significant differences between the cis and trans-isomers in Solution. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The persistence of propanil in soil and aquatic environments along
with the possible accumulation of toxic degradation products, such as chloroanilines, is of environmental concern. In this work, a continuous small-scale bioprocess to degrade the herbicide propanil, its main catabolic by-product, 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), and the herbicide adjuvants is carried out. A microbial consortium, constituted by nine bacterial genera, was selected. The isolated strains, identified by amplification and sequencing of their 16S rDNA, were: Acidovorax sp., Luteibacter (rhizovicinus), Xanthomonas sp., Flavobacterium sp., Variovorax sp., Acinetobacter (calcoaceticus), Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp., and Kocuria sp. The ability of the microbial consortium to degrade the herbicide was evaluated in a biofilm reactor at propanil loading rates ranging from 1.