These data point to the PVO as an intriguing region in which 5-HT appears to promote genesis of 5-HT neurons that accumulate along the brain ventricles and contact the CSF. “
“Prefrontal neurons code many kinds of behaviourally relevant visual information. In behaving monkeys, we used a cued target detection task to address coding of objects, behavioural categories and spatial locations, examining the temporal evolution of neural activity across dorsal and ventral regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (encompassing parts of areas 9, 46, 45A and
8A), and across the two cerebral hemispheres. Within each hemisphere there was little evidence for regional specialisation, with GSK J4 ic50 neurons in dorsal and ventral regions showing closely similar patterns of selectivity for objects, categories and locations. For a stimulus in either visual field, however, there was a strong and temporally specific difference in response in the two cerebral hemispheres. In the first part of the visual response (50–250 ms from see more stimulus onset), processing in each hemisphere was largely restricted to contralateral stimuli, with strong responses to such stimuli, and selectivity for both object and category. Later (300–500 ms), responses to ipsilateral stimuli also appeared, many cells now responding more strongly to ipsilateral
than to contralateral stimuli, and many showing selectivity for category. Activity on error trials showed that late activity in both hemispheres reflected the animal’s final decision. As information is processed towards a behavioural decision, its encoding spreads to encompass large, bilateral regions of prefrontal cortex. “
“Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA Palmatine Calyx of Held giant presynaptic terminals in the auditory brainstem form glutamatergic axosomatic synapses that have advanced to one of the best-studied synaptic connections of the mammalian
brain. As the auditory system matures and adjusts to high-fidelity synaptic transmission, the calyx undergoes extensive structural and functional changes – in mice, it is formed at about postnatal day 3 (P3), achieves immature function until hearing onset at about P10 and can be considered mature from P21 onwards. This setting provides a unique opportunity to examine the repertoire of genes driving synaptic structure and function during postnatal maturation. Here, we determined the gene expression profile of globular bushy cells (GBCs), neurons giving rise to the calyx of Held, at different maturational stages (P3, P8, P21). GBCs were retrogradely labelled by stereotaxic injection of fluorescent cholera toxin-B, and their mRNA content was collected by laser microdissection. Microarray profiling, successfully validated with real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and nCounter approaches, revealed genes regulated during maturation.