This effect is the strongest when considering genomic location. For instance, four of the nine developmental timer genes, redCDEF, are found in
a single operon (Higgs et R428 ic50 al., 2005). There are four cases when three or more genes from the same locus are found in the database (the sas, red, act and che3 loci). The effect of such gene clustering on our analysis is less apparent when considering sequence conservation and severity of phenotype, as these gene properties vary even between the genes encoded at a single locus. It is important therefore to continue experimental efforts to increase the number of development genes whose roles have been categorized, placing them in the established hierarchy of developmental regulation. With greater numbers of categorized genes, more confidence could be placed in the correlations identified in this study, and it may then prove possible to suggest the functional category of a developmental gene purely from an analysis of its genomic context and sequence variability. It seems plausible that ‘social’ (intercellular) genes are more highly conserved than intracellular genes, because becoming asocial carries a profound fitness penalty under starvation conditions. It might also be expected that nutrient availability
would affect the relative frequencies of mutualistic, parasitic, antagonistic and other social relationships observed in an environment. To address this topic properly, it is important Selleckchem Depsipeptide that we characterize the genomic differences between multiple strains of M. xanthus exhibiting different social phenotypes (and test any relationship with nutrient levels). Unfortunately, there is currently only one completed genome available click here for the entire Myxococcus genus; hence, to generate a complete picture of genetic variability in this organism would require tens more genomes (Whitworth, 2009). Such analysis must wait for the moment; however, in the meantime, an increased understanding of the correlations between sequence variability, phenotype and gene location should aid us in rationally
investigating the genetics of social behaviour in the myxobacteria. We would like to thank Rupert Marshall, Mike Young and Peter Cock for comments on the manuscript. Table S1. Spreadsheet of developmental genes of Myxococcus xanthus, their phenotypes upon deletion, their proximity to the chromosomal origin, and the degree of conservation between their orthologues in M. xanthus and Stigmatella aurantiaca. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Rhodotorula glutinis is known to accumulate large amounts of carotenoids under certain culture conditions, which have very important industrial applications. So far, the molecular mechanism of regulating carotenogenesis is still not well understood.