Clearly, taken together, more can be learned from the experiences

Clearly, taken together, more can be learned from the experiences in LAC and SCC. Further research using methods such as dietary pattern scores is needed and could provide additional insights on the impacts of these food-based offerings or strategies on student eating behaviors. The LAUSD experience in LAC suggests that a multicomponent approach was beneficial for introducing, integrating, and supporting healthy food modifications to the SY 2011–12 menus. The “I’m IN” public education campaign, for example, augmented the student and parent taste testing by LAUSD by helping to prepare students for the new menu items that were introduced (Table 1). Age-appropriate

portion learn more sizes for some of the meal categories also enabled reductions in key nutrients without significant modifications to

food composition or taste. However, this latter action did contribute to unintended effects — e.g., the lowering of desirable nutrients such as protein and fiber. In addition, these complementary strategies do not necessarily improve nutrition for everyone. For instance, for those children whose energy intake is appropriate, simply reducing portion size does not alter the food selection or the composition of their diet, which may still be poor. Children can also compensate for lost energy Temsirolimus intake by consuming undesirable foods from other sources. School districts in the U.S. that are contemplating similar menu changes to their student meal program may find food-based menu planning more logistically feasible and in line with the USDA Final Rule (USDA, 2012). Protein, fiber, and other healthful nutrients are vital for ensuring proper nutrient intake among students and should be taken into account when making menu changes. Another factor to consider is children and adolescents who are not receiving adequate nutrient intake (i.e., poor

diet composition with excess energy intake). This can occur even among children who are obese, not just for those who are underweight. Moderately active children, ages 4–8, for example, need 1400–1600 kcal per day; those, ages 9–13, need 1800–2200 kcal per day. Sedentary children and adolescents require the lower end of this range (USDA, 2010). In LAC and SCC, the average Suplatast tosilate school meal caloric ranges were between 380 and 830 kcal per meal. Recognizing the influential role that taste can play in food selection, the LAUSD (in LAC) conducted 30,000 + taste tests prior to finalizing the menu for SY 2011–12 (Table 1). SCC took similar actions to improve the appeal of their new menu items to increase student receptivity (Mason et al., 2012). SCC school districts, for example, made changes to the formula of the school meals while concurrently providing public education to parents and students about the benefits of healthy eating (Table 1).

3, 4 and 5

Studies show that A squamosa L and its activ

3, 4 and 5

Studies show that A. squamosa L. and its active principals possess wide pharmacological actions including antidiabetic, antioxidative, antirheumatic, antilipidemic BIBW2992 mouse and insecticide. 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 A fraction of total alkaloid from roots exhibits antihypertensive, antispasmodic, antihistaminic and bronchodilator properties. Leaves contain cardiotonic alkaloids, quinoline, squamone, and bullatacinone were selectively cytotoxic to human breast carcinoma. Two new compounds have been isolated & are reported in this paper which are 5-((6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-1-yl)methyl)-2-methoxybenzene-1,3-diol and (1R,3S)-6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1,3-diol. These compounds are found to be antiulcer in nature. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their activity on Hydrogen Potassium ATPase enzyme and were compared with the omeprazole as the standard drug. Activity was found to be quite comparable. All chemicals used were of analytical grade. Twigs of A. squamosa PI3K Inhibitor Library order (6.0 Kg) were shade dried and finely powdered and placed for maceration with ethanol (18 L) and were kept at room temperature for 48 h. The macerated material was collected. This process of extraction was repeated for five times, till the plant material was extracted exhaustively. The total extract concentrated at 40–45 °C

and weighed. The extract weighed 520 g (8.66%). Ethanolic

extract (500 g) was taken and triturated with n-hexane (250 ml × 15), the hexane fraction concentrated under low pressure at 40 °C. After trituration with hexane the residue was triturated with chloroform mafosfamide (250 ml × 15), chloroform soluble fraction was evaporated under low pressure; weight of fraction obtained 95 g. After trituration with chloroform, residue was then kept in distilled water (2 L) and then it was fractionated with Aq. saturated n-butanol (500 ml × 10). This fraction was concentrated low pressure at 50 °C (15 g). Aqueous fraction also concentrated under low pressure at 45–50 °C (20 g). Repeated column chromatography was done on chloroform fraction in order to isolate the two new compounds viz. 5-((6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-1-yl)methyl)-2-methoxybenzene-1,3-diol and (1R,3S)-6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1,3-diol. Melting point for compound no.1 is 194–196 °C, molecular formula is C20H25NO5, m/z obtained at 360.17. Compound no.2 which is characterized as (1R,3S)-6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1,3-diol has a melting point range of 124–126 °C, molecular formula is C12H17NO4, m/z obtained at 240.13. The chloroform fraction (95.0 g) was chromatographed on silica gel (60–120 mesh, 900 g), using hexane with increasing amount of chloroform and methanol as eluent.

8, containing 4% (w/v) SDS, 10% (w/v) glycerol, 5% (v/v) 2-mercap

8, containing 4% (w/v) SDS, 10% (w/v) glycerol, 5% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol and 0.002% (w/v) bromophenol blue] and then boiled for 5 min. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, 10%) and subsequent gel staining with coomassie blue were used for detection of protein expression. The fusion protein was purified from IPTG-induced bacteria in denaturing conditions via a standard nickel resin purification protocol (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). In-gel digestion with trypsin and protein identification via nano-liquid chromatography–linear ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometry (Nano-LC–LTQ-MS) analysis (Thermo Electron Corp., Waltham, MA) were performed following the protocols described previously

[24]. After IPTG induction, E. coli harboring the expression vector with inserted FomA gene [E. PI3K Inhibitor Library coli BL21(DE3) FomA] were spread on a sterilized surface and irradiated with UV at total

energy of 7000 J/m2 by an UV cross-linker (Spectronics, Westbury, NY). The viability of UV-irradiated E. coli was determined by observing the growth of bacterial colonies on LB agar plates. For immunization, female ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice (3–6 weeks old; Harlan, Indianapolis, IN) were intranasally immunized by inoculating 25 μl of UV-irradiated E. coli BL21(DE3) FomA (108 CFU) into the nasal cavity of each mouse for 9 weeks at a 3-week interval. The second and third inoculations were administered buy Everolimus in the same manner as the first immunization. Mice immunized with an UV-irradiated E. coli harboring expression vector for green fluorescence protein (GFP) [E. coli BL21(DE3) GFP] (108 CFU) served as a control group. The concentrations of purified recombinant FomA and GFP were determined

by a Bradford Thiamine-diphosphate kinase assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). The sample (25 μg) was electrophoresed in a 10% (w/v) SDS-PAGE and electrophoretically transferred onto a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (Millipore, Billerica, MA) for 90 min at a current of 75 V. The membrane was pre-incubated in Tris-buffered saline [with 0.1% (v/v) Tween 20] containing 5% (w/v) skim milk, and then incubated at 4 °C overnight with serum (1:1000 dilution) obtained from mice immunized with UV-irradiated E. coli BL21(DE3) FomA or GFP for 9 weeks. Bound antibodies (IgG) were detected with anti-mouse horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated IgG (1:5000 dilution, Promega, Madison, WI). The peroxidase activity was developed with a western lighting chemiluminescence kit (PerkinElmer, Boston, MA). To induce gum swelling and abscesses, the immunized mice were inoculated with live bacteria as previously described [25]. Briefly, an aliquot of 100 μl of live F. nucleatum (4 × 108 CFU/2 ml in PBS), P. gingivalis (103 CFU/1 ml in PBS) or F. nucleatum plus P. gingivalis (4 × 108 CFU plus 103 CFU/3 ml in PBS) were suspended in 100 μl of PBS, and then inoculated into the oral cavities of immunized mice everyday for 3 days.

In the PHiD-CV group, seropositivity rates ranged from 87 5% to 9

In the PHiD-CV group, seropositivity rates ranged from 87.5% to 90.2% at one month post-dose 2, pre-booster and one month post-booster (Table 2). In the groups receiving pneumococcal protein-containing formulations, antibody GMCs increased 8.5–16.3-fold for anti-PhtD antibodies

and 8.2–54.2-fold for anti-Ply antibodies from pre-vaccination to post-dose 2. One month post-booster, antibody GMCs for both PhtD and Ply were 2.2–3.2-fold higher than pre-booster and 1.4–2.2-fold higher than post-dose 2 (Table 1 and Table 2). Before vaccination, for each vaccine CT99021 ic50 serotype, a maximum of 15.8% of toddlers in the groups receiving formulations with PS-conjugates had serotype-specific antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL. One month post-dose 2, for each vaccine serotype, at least 97.5% of toddlers receiving a PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD formulation had antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL, except for serotypes 6B (≥78.3%) and 23F (≥89.7%); for PHiD-CV recipients, at least 97.6% had antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL except for serotypes 6B (85.4%) and 23F (92.7%). In the groups that did not receive PS-conjugates, 0.0–17.1% of toddlers had antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL; similar ranges were observed pre- and post-vaccination (Table S2). Before booster vaccination, for each vaccine serotype, at least 92.5% of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD recipients and at least 95.0% of PHiD-CV recipients had antibody

concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL, except for serotypes 6B (≥75.0% and ≥77.5%, respectively) and 23F (≥87.8%

and ≥92.5%). Post-booster, for each vaccine serotype, these percentages were at least 97.9% in the PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD groups except 6B (≥89.4%), and at least 97.5% INK128 in the PHiD-CV group except 6B (95.0%). The percentage of toddlers with pneumococcal serotype-specific anti-capsular antibodies above 0.2 μg/mL were thus within similar ranges for the PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD groups and the PHiD-CV group, both after 2-dose priming and post-booster (Table S2). Post-primary vaccination, at least 80.0% of toddlers in the PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase groups had OPA titers ≥8 for each vaccine serotype except for 6B (≥74.1%), compared to 87.1% of toddlers in the PHiD-CV group. For each vaccine serotype, at least 42.9% of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD recipients and at least 52.9% of PHiD-CV recipients had OPA titers ≥8 before booster vaccination. Post-booster, these percentages increased to at least 89.2% in the PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD groups (except 6B: ≥84.8%) and at least 94.6% in the PHiD-CV group (Table S3). In all groups receiving formulations containing PS-conjugates, for each vaccine serotype, increases in antibody GMCs and OPA GMTs were observed from pre- to post-primary vaccination and from pre- to post-booster. Booster vaccination elicited similar or higher antibody GMC and OPA GMT values compared to the post-dose 2 values (Table 3A and Table 3B). Before vaccination, 19.5–31.8% of PS-conjugate recipients were seropositive for anti-PD antibodies. Post-dose 2, 97.

Although the vaccine was designed to target HPV-16/18, end-of-stu

Although the vaccine was designed to target HPV-16/18, end-of-study data from the 4-year PATRICIA trial demonstrated efficacy against non-vaccine HPV types [10], and an overall VE against CIN3+ lesions of 93% irrespective of HPV type in the lesion in the HPV-naïve1 TVC cohort [9]. We have applied these data to the currently observed disease burden in all WHO reported countries to estimate the additional health benefits of vaccination that accrue from protection against HPV types other than HPV-16/18.

When protection irrespective of HPV types was considered, the number of CC cases and deaths potentially prevented by vaccination was at least 18% larger than when only HPV-16/18 were considered. The increased potential benefit was seen across all five WHO continents, and was particularly pronounced in Africa, where non-HPV-16/18 cases account

HA-1077 nmr for 17,125 cases prevented at 70% vaccination coverage representing an additional 34% cases potentially prevented, compared with 272 cases additionally prevented in Oceania, representing an additional 18% cases potentially prevented. HPV vaccination also has the potential to reduce the morbidity associated with precancerous lesions. Management of precancerous lesions detected by screening may require surgical procedures, such as conisation. In countries with absent or poorly developed cervical Y-27632 cost screening programmes, few precancerous lesions will be detected and the health impact will mainly be observed when undetected lesions progress to symptomatic cancer. Conversely, in countries with well-developed and effective screening programmes, many precancerous lesions are detected at an early stage and are usually treated before they progress to cancer, so the health Endonuclease burden will tend to shift away

from CC treatment towards precancerous lesion treatment. In some industrialised countries, the economic burden of precancerous lesions may exceed or approach the economic burden of CC. For example, a study of patients in a health maintenance plan in the USA found that treatment of CC accounted for 10% of healthcare expenditure on HPV-related cervical disease and treatment of precancerous lesions accounted for 17% [22]. In Belgium, the total annual cost of CC treatment to the healthcare payer was estimated at Euro 6.5 million and the annual cost of precancerous lesions at Euro 1.97 million in a retrospective study [23]. Other morbidities associated with treatment of precancerous lesions of the cervix avoidable by vaccination such as increased risk of perinatal death and pre-term births should also be considered [24] and [25]. To our knowledge, this is the first estimate of the potential impact of HPV vaccination on CC cases and deaths to apply the recent data on VE irrespective of HPV type causing the lesion reported from the end-of-study data in the PATRICIA trial [9] and [10].

Readers who object to our interpretation of the data are free to

Readers who object to our interpretation of the data are free to do their own calculations and use their own descriptors of the usefulness of

these tests. “
“The International Society of Physiotherapy Journal Editors (ISPJE) is a network of the World Confederation of Physical Therapy that is open VRT752271 concentration to editors and editorial board members of journals that publish material related to physiotherapy. It was established in 2007 to provide a forum to discuss issues related to the publication of physiotherapy journals, to enhance collaboration between editorial staff of those journals, and to foster improvements in the quality of physiotherapy publications. Journal of Physiotherapy is a member journal. The purpose of this editorial is to

present the activities of the ISPJE and how they can benefit physiotherapy clinicians and researchers. The ISPJE maintains a free online register of member journals. This is a valuable service because the number of physiotherapy journals is expanding, making it difficult to keep track Autophagy inhibitor of them all. In the five years since the ISPJE was established, the number of member journals has increased from 40 to 110. Clinicians could scan this register to discover a journal that may be publishing content in their area of interest. Clinicians may easily be unaware of such journals because most physiotherapy journals are not indexed on many of the major electronic databases. For example, only 14% of member journals of the ISPJE are indexed on Medline. As well as providing the names of member journals, the ISPJE register also provides a searchable index of other details that may influence a clinician’s choice about

which journals might be of interest. Such details include whether it during is available in print and/or electronic formats, the language(s) of publication, and the number of issues per year. Similarly, physiotherapists involved in research could use the register to identify journals to read or in which to publish. The ISPJE register also contains other details to help researchers decide which journal might be an appropriate publication venue for their unpublished work. For example, the register shows whether the journal is freely available or subscription only, the range of electronic databases on which it is indexed, and whether manuscripts can be submitted on paper, attached to an email, or uploaded via a website. Clinicians or researchers who identify a journal that they would like their library to subscribe to will also find the necessary details to make such a request, including the journal’s numeric identifier (ISSN), publisher and website. Of course it can be difficult to judge whether a journal is of interest without seeing the content. The ISPJE therefore also provides two more sources of information about the content of each journal.

31 Flavonoids sterols, triterpenoids, alkaloids and phenolics are

31 Flavonoids sterols, triterpenoids, alkaloids and phenolics are known to be bioactive antidiabetic

principles. 32 Flavonoids are known to regenerate the damaged beta cells in the alloxan induced diabetic rats. 33 Phenolics are found to be effective antihyperglycemic agents. On this basis we have selected the glucose induced hyperglycaemic model to screen the anti-hyperglycaemic activity of the plant extracts. Liver function tests (LFTs) are commonly used in clinical practice to screen for liver disease, monitor the progression of known disease, and monitor the effects of potentially hepatotoxic drugs. The most common LFTs include the serum aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin. Hepatocellular damage causes release of these enzymes into circulation. Increase Selleck MK-1775 in

serum levels of AST shows hepatic injuries similar to viral hepatitis, infarction, and muscular damages. ALT, which mediates conversion of alanine to pyruvate and glutamate, is specific for liver and is a suitable indicator of hepatic injuries.34 In the present study, the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin level were significantly increased.35 Increased level of serum marker enzymes due to directly conversion AUY-922 concentration of amino acids to keto acids are AST and ALT. Inflammatory hepatocellular disorders results in extremely elevated transaminase levels.36 The increase in the activities of plasma AST and ALT indicated that diabetes may be induced hepatic dysfunction. Supporting our findings it has been found by Larcan et al.37 that liver was necrotized in diabetic

patients. Chronic else mild elevation of amino transferase is frequently found in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, an increase in the activities of AST and ALT in plasma may be mainly due to the leakage of these enzymes from the liver cytosol into the blood stream.38 Further that, our results on the recovery after treatment with S. cumini seed extract are in parity with findings with other plants reported by other workers. 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the treatment of diabetic mice with S. cumini has exerted a considerable hypoglycemic effect. In addition, these herbs could be liver damage associated with alloxan diabetes. However, further biochemical studies should be conducted to promote using of these herbs as antidiabetic agents. All authors have none to declare. Authors are thankful to Director, Mahavir Cancer Sansthan & Research Centre, Patna, Bihar (India) for providing required facilities for the current study. We also thank Head of the Department for providing the animals for the present work. “
“Thorax innovation (TORINO) Marc Humbert, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France Drugs induced pulmonary arterial hypertension Andrei Seferian et al., Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France Complications of chemotherapy, a basic science update Marianne Mazevet et al.

Page 5327, Table 2 • Row “Geometric mean titer + S D 581 + 3380,

Page 5327, Table 2 • Row “Geometric mean titer + S.D. 581 + 3380, 474 + 1830, 4076 + 7058”, at the month 2, month 6 and month 7 columns. “
“Neisseria meningitidis is a gram-negative diplococcus that causes severe invasive disease including septicemia and meningitis [1]. Most invasive disease is the result of infection with one of five groups (A, B, C, Y, W-135) as characterized by their capsular polysaccharide [2]. Epidemic group A disease occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and in some areas of Asia [3], [4] and [5]. Endemic group B and C disease predominates in Europe and North America; an increase in group Y disease has been reported over selleck compound the last 20 years in the United States [6]. Outbreaks of W-135 disease have been reported

Fulvestrant cost in the Middle East and Africa [4] and [7]. Meningococcal disease is seen in all age groups including children 2–10 years of age; in the US, groups A, C, Y and W-135 account for approximately 60% of meningococcal disease [8]. Using similar conjugation technology that led to the development of effective vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal diseases in infants and young children [9] and [10], group C meningococcal conjugate vaccines (MenC) were

developed that led to dramatic decreases in invasive disease caused by N. meningitidis group C in European countries and Australia where universal immunization programs were implemented [11], [12], [13] and [14]. By chemically conjugating capsular polysaccharide to a protein carrier, the polysaccharide antigen is converted from a T-cell independent antigen to a T-cell dependent antigen with the resultant induction in immune memory in all ages after immunization and improved immunogenicity in infants [15], [16] and [17]. A quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine was developed in an attempt to improve upon the quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine that has been available for decades. Menactra® (MCV4; Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA) was licensed for use in the United States January

17, 2005, for individuals 11–55 years of age and October 19, 2007, for children 2–10 years of age, and is recommended for universal use as a preadolescent dose [18] and for children 2–10 years of age with increased risk of meninogococcal infection [19] and [20]. Menveo® (MenACWY-CRM; Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Cambridge, Adenylyl cyclase MA), a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, was recently licensed in the United States February 19, 2010, for individuals 11–55 years of age and in Canada on May 21, 2010 for individuals 11 years and older; further studies were undertaken to support its use in infants [21], [22] and [23] and younger children [24]. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM to the licensed MCV4 vaccine in children 2–10 years of age. The investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM; Menveo®, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Cambridge, MA) contained (per 0.

philoxeroides seedlings in response to Cr exposure are also shown

philoxeroides seedlings in response to Cr exposure are also shown in ( Fig. 9). Since the soluble protein content in the leaf tissues were slightly higher in Cr treated plants than in control plants in the 12 day of the experiment; it is likely that Cr induced stress over the course of the treatment and that antioxidative enzymes activities were consequently same. It is reported that heavy metal stress

has been shown to induce a variety of proteins resulting in an overall increase in protein content. 19 However the additional experiment Ipatasertib supplier is necessary to confirm the tolerance of these plants to heavy metal stress. The results of the present study indicated that A. philoxeroides accumulates high amounts of Cr in roots than shoots. A. philoxeroides is a fast growing plant and has the ability to tolerate high Cr (150 mg/l Cr) concentrations. Thus it can be used for phytoremediation. All authors have none to declare. “
“Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosuppressant and prodrug of mycophenolic acid, used extensively in transplant medicine. It is a reversible inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase1 in purine biosynthesis, more specifically guanine synthesis. MMF is also

used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as Behcet’s INCB018424 nmr disease, pemphigus vulgaris and systemic lupus erythematosus. The chemical name for MMF is 2-morpholinoethyl (E)-6-(1,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-5-isobenzofuranyl)-4-methyl-4-hexenoate. The empirical formula and molecular weight of the drug are C23H31NO7 and 433.50 g respectively. The chemical structure of MMF is presented in Fig. 1. An extensive literature surrey is carried out and found a few HPLC2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 methods have been reported for the determination of MMF present in biological fluids or biological matrixes. Very few reverse phase-HPLC

methods8 and 9 are reported for the determination of the drug in dosage forms. But no LC/MS method is reported to determine the quantity of MMF in pharmaceutical formulations; Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase therefore the authors are interested in developing a new LC/MS method for the assay of MMF in pharmaceutical formulations. The scope of the present investigation is to apply this method to determine the amount of MMF and to study the stability of MMF under forced degradation. This manuscript gives the first report for the application of proposed LC/MS method in stability testing and assay of pharmaceutical dosage forms with less-time consuming analysis. HPLC grade methanol (sd Fine-Chem Limited, Mumbai, India), acetonitrile (Qualigens Fine Chemicals, Mumbai, India) and ammonium acetate (Qualigens Fine Chemicals, Mumbai, India); AR grade glacial acetic acid (Loba Chemie Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India), hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, methanol and hydrogen peroxide (Qualigens Fine Chemicals, Mumbai, India) and Milli-Q water (RANKEM Laboratories, Mumbai, India) were used for the present investigation.

Microwave irradiation has been successfully employed in the synth

Microwave irradiation has been successfully employed in the synthesis of some quinazolinone derivatives in moderate to good yields. Synthesized compounds have been characterized using IR, 1H and

13C NMR and mass spectra analysis. Antimicrobial activity of synthesized compounds and starting material (anthranilamide) LY2109761 has been evaluated using both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. The results indicate that the synthesized compounds clearly show broad spectrum antibacterial activity. All authors have none to declare. “
“In vitro assays are increasingly being used in drug metabolism studies to screen novel chemicals. Their advantages are twofold: first, they allow testing early in the drug discovery phase, providing

important find more information on chemical characteristics; second, human cells or cell constituents can be utilized, increasing the relevance to man. 1 Cell-based in vitro models not only help to reduce the number of animals used but are also much faster to perform, more cost effective and give more reproducible data than animal studies. 2 The model system used was chick embryo fibroblasts, which constitute a primary cell culture system and is considered to be very close to human system. The study was planned in tune with one of the primary objectives of our research group, which is to standardize the use of alternative experimental systems for studying the protective Org 27569 effects of plant extracts and products, thereby minimizing the use of live animals in research. An elaborate pilot study was conducted by our research group on the antioxidant content present in the leaves of Zea mays at different stages of growth namely 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30th days after sowing. Among these the leaves on 10th day of growth was found to have maximum content of all the enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants. In order to throw light on the chemical

nature of the active components, extracts of the leaves were prepared in three solvents of different polarity namely water, methanol and chloroform. Different doses were tried and all the three extracts with 20 mg concentration were found to possess maximum antioxidant activity. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolics and flavonoids in Zea mays leaves. The present study centres on determining the anti-apoptotic effects of Zea mays leaf extracts on apoptosis induced in primary chick embryo fibroblasts cells by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Zea mays seeds were obtained from TNAU in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu. They were grown within the university campus in pots. The plant was taken at 10th day after sowing. The plantlets were uprooted and washed thoroughly with running tap water. Then the leaves were blotted dry between folds of filter paper to remove water droplets.