For example, an a7nAChR positive modulator might be particularly effective in those patients found to have an allelic variant of the CHRNA7 promoter that is associated with reduced expression.246 Genetic studies indicate
that individual risk genes such as common alleles of GABAA receptors are associated with elevated risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders.247 Such shared risk genes or shared copy number variants provide face validity for the conviction that drug discovery Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical around these targets may yield a much broader therapeutic impact than just in schizophrenia. However, in keeping with the complex genetics of neuropsychiatric disorders, drugs targeting these pathways will likely Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be useful only in particular subgroups
of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. Acknowledgments Some of the research findings discussed in this article were supported by USPHS grants to Joseph T. Coyle, MD, including R01 MH51290 and P50MH06045. JTC holds a patent on the use of D-serine for the treatment of schizophrenia that is owned by Partners Healthcare and has consulted with Abbott, Bristol Meyer Squibb, Cephalon, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Lilly on drug discovery. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Debbie Johnson. Selected abbreviations and acronyms DAAO D-amino acid oxidase DMXBA 3-(2,4 dimethoxy) benzylidene-anabaseine GABA γ-aminobutyric acid GMS glycine modulatory site NAC N-acetylcysteine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical nAChR nicotinic acetylcholine receptor NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate PAM positive allosteric modulator
To the best of present knowledge, schizophrenia is a disorder
with variable phenotypic expression and poorly understood, complex etiology, involving a major genetic contribution, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as well as environmental factors interacting with the genetic susceptibility. Multiple genes and different combinations of their polymorphic variants provide the genetic background, with a proportion of the transmitted genotypes remaining Montelukast Sodium clinically unexpressed. Schizophrenia occurs in Inhibitor Library mouse diverse populations at comparable rates,1 which is consistent with an ancient origin and – as far as records go – its incidence has not changed much over the past two centuries. Diagnostic concepts play a critical role in the management and treatment of schizophrenia patients; in research aiming to identify risk factors and causal mechanisms, as well as in attempts to resolve contentious issues, such as comorbidity and relationships among proximal or partly overlapping disorders. A principal source of difficulty in this endeavor is the complex nature of the disorder itself, and the inherent weakness of the diagnostic concept of schizophrenia, in that it remains based upon assumptions about an underlying but still unknown disease process.