This effect is the strongest when considering genomic location F

This effect is the strongest when considering genomic location. For instance, four of the nine developmental timer genes, redCDEF, are found in

a single operon (Higgs et R428 ic50 al., 2005). There are four cases when three or more genes from the same locus are found in the database (the sas, red, act and che3 loci). The effect of such gene clustering on our analysis is less apparent when considering sequence conservation and severity of phenotype, as these gene properties vary even between the genes encoded at a single locus. It is important therefore to continue experimental efforts to increase the number of development genes whose roles have been categorized, placing them in the established hierarchy of developmental regulation. With greater numbers of categorized genes, more confidence could be placed in the correlations identified in this study, and it may then prove possible to suggest the functional category of a developmental gene purely from an analysis of its genomic context and sequence variability. It seems plausible that ‘social’ (intercellular) genes are more highly conserved than intracellular genes, because becoming asocial carries a profound fitness penalty under starvation conditions. It might also be expected that nutrient availability

would affect the relative frequencies of mutualistic, parasitic, antagonistic and other social relationships observed in an environment. To address this topic properly, it is important Selleckchem Depsipeptide that we characterize the genomic differences between multiple strains of M. xanthus exhibiting different social phenotypes (and test any relationship with nutrient levels). Unfortunately, there is currently only one completed genome available click here for the entire Myxococcus genus; hence, to generate a complete picture of genetic variability in this organism would require tens more genomes (Whitworth, 2009). Such analysis must wait for the moment; however, in the meantime, an increased understanding of the correlations between sequence variability, phenotype and gene location should aid us in rationally

investigating the genetics of social behaviour in the myxobacteria. We would like to thank Rupert Marshall, Mike Young and Peter Cock for comments on the manuscript. Table S1. Spreadsheet of developmental genes of Myxococcus xanthus, their phenotypes upon deletion, their proximity to the chromosomal origin, and the degree of conservation between their orthologues in M. xanthus and Stigmatella aurantiaca. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Rhodotorula glutinis is known to accumulate large amounts of carotenoids under certain culture conditions, which have very important industrial applications. So far, the molecular mechanism of regulating carotenogenesis is still not well understood.

In these experiments, the orientation discrimination task was sim

In these experiments, the orientation discrimination task was simply performed on the second stimulus without reference to the first one. This was done either by randomizing

the orientations of the composing lines in the first stimulus (Experiments III and IV; Figs 3A and 4A), or by entirely removing the first stimulus (Experiment V; Fig. 5A). The detailed designs of each of these experiments were as follows. In Experiment Ribociclib in vitro III, even though the first stimulus composed of randomly oriented lines was irrelevant to the orientation discrimination task performed on the second stimulus, the subjects were required to perform an additional luminance task on the first stimulus to ensure that some voluntary attention was still allocated to it. The luminance of randomly oriented lines in the first stimulus of a trial was either identical (0.36 cd/m2) or randomly interleaved (0.61 or 0.11 cd/m2; Fig. 3A). The subjects performed a dual task: first, to report whether the random lines in the first stimulus were iso-luminant, and then to judge whether the second stimulus (composed of iso-oriented and iso-luminant lines) was tilted clockwise or counterclockwise relative to its mean orientation (55° or 140°, i.e. the standard orientation used in Experiments I and II), which can be established internally by the

subjects within a block of trials (Vogels & Orban, 1985; Shiu & Pashler, 1992). This manipulation contrasts with Experiments IV Selleckchem TGFbeta inhibitor and V, in which less or no spatial attention was required to allocate to the first stimulus: in Experiment IV, where the first stimulus consisted of randomly oriented and iso-luminant lines (Fig. 4A), and in Experiment V, where the first stimulus was not displayed but the gaze shift was still required (Fig. 5A), the subjects were simply instructed

to perform the orientation discrimination task on the second stimulus around its mean orientation. The subjects were trained for 6 days, with eight blocks of trials (a total of 300–400 trials) per day. Auditory feedback was given on error responses. The trained (i.e. standard) orientation in all experiments was 55°, whereas both 55° and 140° orientations were examined in the post-training test for learning specificity. In Experiment I, two groups of Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase subjects were trained in the congruent and incongruent conditions, respectively; in the other experiments, all subjects were trained in the congruent condition. To counterbalance eye movement training, every four blocks of training trials were interleaved with a block of 50 saccade-balanced trials. In these trials, no stimulus was displayed; the subjects made a gaze shift opposite to that in the training blocks, and performed an irrelevant task to discriminate a slight change in luminance of the shifted FP (brighter or dimmer than the initial FP in the screen center).

Complementation of the

Complementation of the Tofacitinib manufacturer sucB and ubiF mutants with the functional sucB and ubiF genes restored the wild-type level susceptibility to the antibiotics in both MIC and MBC tests, whereas the mutants transformed with vector control remained susceptible to the antibiotics like the mutants alone (Table 1). To determine the susceptibility of stationary phase cultures of the sucB and ubiF mutants to various antibiotics, the stationary phase cultures with log phase cultures as a control were exposed to ampicillin and gentamicin and the survival of the mutants at different

time points was assessed. Antibiotic exposure of the log phase and stationary phase cultures showed that both the sucB and ubiF mutants were more susceptible than the parent strain to ampicillin and gentamicin. For log phase cultures,

both sucB and ubiF mutants were completely killed after ampicillin (100 μg mL−1) or gentamicin (20 μg mL−1) exposure for 1 day, whereas a portion of the parent control strain BW25113 cells survived (Table 2). Complementation of the mutants restored the level of persisters to the wild-type level in the antibiotic exposure RAD001 supplier assays. For stationary phase cultures, both the sucB and ubiF mutants were initially killed to the same extent as the parent strain BW25113 during the first 3-day ampicillin (100 μg mL−1) or gentamicin (40 μg mL−1) exposure, but both mutants showed lower level of persisters than the parent strain after 6 days or longer (Table 3). Again, complementation of the sucB and ubiF mutants restored the level of persisters to that of the parent strain, whereas the mutants transformed with vector control behaved

like the mutants alone in having lower number of persisters (Table 3). It is worth noting that the sucB and ubiF mutants alone without antibiotics did not lose significant viability compared with those exposed to antibiotics in the exposure assay, Histone demethylase indicating that the decreased persister survival in the mutants is genuine and not due to a nonspecific loss of viability in the absence of antibiotics during the exposure time period (see Table 2). This has been found to be true in other experiments of this study. Overnight stationary phase cultures of the sucB and ubiF mutants and their complemented strains along with the parent strain BW25113 were exposed to H2O2 at 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mM for 4 h and the number of persisters was assessed on LB plates. The sucB mutant was much more susceptible to peroxide than the ubiF mutant and the parent strain, as the sucB mutant was completely killed by H2O2 at 25 mM and above (not shown). The ubiF mutant was more sensitive to H2O2 than the parent strain at 100 mM, as the ubiF mutant had no surviving bacteria.

It is the commonest of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of

It is the commonest of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of childhood,

comprising 85% of cases.[1, 2] It has an annual incidence estimated to range between 1.9 and 4.1 per million children.[3, 4] Clinically, JDM is characterized by muscle check details weakness and typical skin involvement. It may also involve multiple other systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, heart, lungs, kidneys and eyes. The diagnosis of JDM is based on criteria first proposed by Bohan and Peter in 1975.[5, 6] These criteria are: proximal muscle weakness, characteristic rash, raised muscle enzymes and typical electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy changes. In recent years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has played an increasingly important

role in the diagnosis of inflammatory muscle disease and in many situations has BMS-354825 chemical structure obviated the need for invasive procedures such as EMG and muscle biopsy.[7] Previous studies have described the clinical features and course of large JDM cohorts in North America, Europe, South America, Saudi Arabia and Japan. To our knowledge, there is only one other Australasian study that describes a cohort of patients with JDM.[8] The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features, complications, course and treatment of JDM at an Australian tertiary referral centre over the past two decades. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients diagnosed with JDM at the Royal Children’s Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne between 1989 and 2010. The study was approved by the RCH Human Research Ethics Committee. Patients were identified by 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase two search strategies. The first involved a search of the hospital medical records database to identify patients discharged from the hospital between January

1989 and June 2010 with an International Classification of Diseases 9th or 10th edition (ICD-9 or ICD-10) code potentially compatible with the diagnosis of JDM. The ICD-9 codes used were 710.3 (Dermatomyositis) and 710.4 (Polymyositis) and the ICD 10 codes used were M33.0 (Juvenile Dermatomyositis), M33.1 (Other Dermatomyositis), M33.2 (Polymyositis) and M33.9 (Dermatopolymyositis, unspecified). The second search method involved interrogation of the Rheumatology Department’s independent electronic database to search for patients assigned a diagnosis of JDM over the same period. The charts of all patients identified were reviewed by a single reviewer (PG) and information concerning patient demographics, treating team, clinical features at onset and throughout the course of the illness, investigation results, and therapy were entered into an electronic database. Patients were included in the study if they met the Bohan and Peter[6] criteria for definite, probable or possible JDM. Additionally, to be included patients had to have been managed at RCH throughout the course of their illness and have had at least 3 months of follow-up.

Cells were harvested, lysed and the expression of DnrO was detect

Cells were harvested, lysed and the expression of DnrO was detected by DnrO polyclonal antibody (Fig. 4a). The intensity of the band was measured by imagej software. A twofold excess of DnrO expression was observed in culture incubated with DNR compared with control without DNR (Fig. 4b). We could surmise that in the presence of DNR, the DnrO autorepression is alleviated because it cannot bind to its own promoter sequence (site of repression). This resulted in unhindered transcription of DnrO. As autorepression of dnrO and activation of dnrN is a simultaneous event, an increase

in DNR level in the cells would affect both. This led Obeticholic Acid clinical trial us to investigate further the status of dnrN expression in the same scenario. The addition of DNR to a heterologous strain carrying dnrNO genes affected the in vivo expression of dnrO as shown by Western blot (Fig. 4, compare Lanes 1 and 2). As DnrO functions as an activator for dnrN, we analyzed the expression of dnrN in the presence and absence of DNR. This was done by fusion of dnrN to a promoterless EGFP as a single transcript

(pIJ8660/dnrNO). The construct Topoisomerase inhibitor was integrated to the S. lividans chromosomal attB site. This was accomplished by mobilizing the E. coli plasmid construct by conjugal transfer. The expression of EGFP was studied in the presence and absence of DNR by confocal microscopy. In the presence of DNR (2 ng), EGFP fluorescence was very low, implying that there is a decrease in dnrN expression (compare plates 1 and 2 in Fig. 5). This means that activation of dnrN is precluded because DnrO cannot bind to its activation site in the presence of DNR. This observation, along with results of the Western blot experiment, suggests that the repression/activation role of DnrO is affected by DNR. Regulation of DNR biosynthesis is a three-tier mechanism involving the three regulatory genes dnrO, dnrN and dnrI. Modulation of expression of these genes by DNR can affect biosynthesis. DNR has been shown to bind to a second site that overlaps with the DnrN-binding sequence (activator site) close to dnrI

promoter (Furuya & Hutchinson, 1996). Competitive inhibition of DnrN binding by DNR has been suggested already (Furuya & Hutchinson, 1996). Modulation selleck chemical of three regulatory genes by the intracellular concentration of DNR and two critical intercalations (dnrN-binding site and dnrO-binding site) seem to regulate, as well as fine-tune, DNR biosynthesis. Based on the experiments described here and previously published work, we propose a model for feedback regulation. The model describes the importance of intracellular concentrations of DNR and DnrO in regulating DNR biosynthesis. DNR production in S. peucetius starts after 48 h of growth in liquid culture medium. DnrO being the first activator, its expression is expected at the early growth phase (Otten et al., 2000). Initially, dnrO promoters are active and dnrN promoter is dormant because of insufficient intracellular activator DnrO (Fig. 6a).

The PCR cycling conditions were as described previously (Hoffmast

The PCR cycling conditions were as described previously (Hoffmaster et al., 2006), using the standard ramp speed. PCR amplicons were analyzed on 2% agarose E-gels using the E-gel electrophoresis system (Invitrogen). All 18 isolates exhibited moderate growth on SBA after an overnight incubation at 37 °C and were nonhemolytic. When grown on rabbit blood agar, isolates exhibited either greening or lavender-greening check details hemolysis. Colonies were 1–2 mm, gray or pale yellow, with varying morphologies of low convex to convex, entire, and were mostly rough, granular, or ground glass in appearance, with one exception. Isolate 2008724141 produced two

colony morphologies: the first as just described and the second of 1–2 mm colonies that were umbilicated, entire, PLX3397 smooth, and very sticky or mucoid. After isolating this second colony type, it was assigned a separate identification number, 2008724143, and subjected to the same tests as the other 18 isolates. Cells from all isolates were gram-positive, medium to long, rounded-end rods in short or long chains. Spores were oval, did not swell the sporangia, and varied in location (central, subterminal, or terminal). All isolates were catalase positive,

capable of growth at 25, 35, and 42 °C, and unable to grow on MacConkey or Salmonella–Shigella agars. Isolates appeared nonmotile in motility media, but exhibited either one to two polar (3/19) or peritrichous (15/19) flagella when stained with Ryu (Weyant et al., 1996), with the exception of 2008724127, which had no detectable flagella. Indole and MR-VP reactions were negative, and lecithinase was not produced. All isolates could be placed into one of two groups, based on the carbohydrate metabolism and oxygen requirements. Isolates within each of these groups had nearly identical

biochemical profiles to one another (Table 2). Group I isolates (n=15; 2008724125, Adenosine triphosphate 2008724127–2008724135, 2008724137, 2008724140–2008724143) were fermentative and facultatively anaerobic, and exhibited characteristics similar to B. megaterium, with the major exceptions of being able to grow anaerobically and most of the isolates (12/15) being unable to hydrolyze citrate. Group II isolates (n=4; 2008724126, 2008724136, 2008724138, and 2008724139) were oxidative and obligately aerobic, and exhibited characteristics that were not consistent with any current, validly defined Bacillus species. These findings were supported by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, with Group I isolates having 99.9% sequence identity to the 16S rRNA gene sequence of B. megaterium ATCC 14581T and Group II isolates having a sequence similarity of up to 100% to the 16S rRNA gene sequence of B. frigoritolerans DSM 8801T, whose current taxonomic position is incorrect, according to DSMZ. The dendrogram showing representative isolates’ relationships with each other, the two type strains, and other Bacillus spp. is shown in Fig. 1.

Table S3 Gene expression changes for healthy control cattle grou

Table S3. Gene expression changes for healthy control cattle group (n=5) at 3 h between stimulated and nonstimulated MDMs in real-time quantitative PCR. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors.

Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Infected yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) were sent from Niushan Lake Fishery, Hubei Province, China, to our laboratory for diagnosis. Macroscopic daffodil yellow mold was observed on the heads and fins of the fish and one Mucor species was isolated. Based on learn more the morphological and molecular analysis, the species was identified as Mucor circinelloides. Its optimum growth temperature was 30 °C and it could not grow at 40 °C. The infectivity results showed wound infection could cause 100% cumulative mortalities at all experimental CFU (106, 107 and 108). The cumulative mortalities of the intraperitoneal infection increased along with the sporangiospore concentrations; the highest mortality was 90% with 108 CFU. Histopathological studies showed M. circinelloides could cause

a series of pathological changes in the host tissues and they disseminated in different viscera, selleck chemical perhaps by the blood. This is the first report of M. circinelloides infection in yellow catfish. Mucor are opportunistic fungi belonging to the family Mucoraceae of the class Zygomycetes. They are ubiquitous in the environment Sitaxentan and have been reported

to be pathogenic in birds, animals and humans (Lie & Njo-Injo, 1956; Sugar, 1992, 2005). Mucormycosis is usually associated with immunosuppression, trauma and subsequent surgery in the human host (Lehrer et al., 1980; Sugar, 1992, 2005; Kontoyiannis et al., 2000, 2005; Gonzalez et al., 2002; Almyroudis et al., 2006) and generally causes localized cutaneous infection with high morbidity and even high mortality when disseminated (Ribes et al., 2000; Lenane et al., 2003; Almyroudis et al., 2006). It is characterized by the formation of sexual spores (zygospores) and vegetative mycelium that lack septa, except to delimit old or injured hyphae or reproductive structures in Mucorales. Asexual reproduction occurs most commonly by the formation of nonmotile, unicelled sporangiospores in uni- or multispored sporangia or merosporangia. Although the infectivity and nosogenesis involved with human mucormycosis are well documented, the only report to date describing it as a pathogen for fish is that of Yang et al. (2006), who isolated a Mucor sp. from Takifugu obscurus in Jiangsu province, China. However, their identification results were inconclusive because they identified it by phenotype only to genus level. If a case report of mucormycosis does not identify the species, it may be difficult to associate a disease specifically with a species (Kontoyiannis et al.

Table S3 Gene expression changes for healthy control cattle grou

Table S3. Gene expression changes for healthy control cattle group (n=5) at 3 h between stimulated and nonstimulated MDMs in real-time quantitative PCR. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors.

Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Infected yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) were sent from Niushan Lake Fishery, Hubei Province, China, to our laboratory for diagnosis. Macroscopic daffodil yellow mold was observed on the heads and fins of the fish and one Mucor species was isolated. Based on Buparlisib ic50 the morphological and molecular analysis, the species was identified as Mucor circinelloides. Its optimum growth temperature was 30 °C and it could not grow at 40 °C. The infectivity results showed wound infection could cause 100% cumulative mortalities at all experimental CFU (106, 107 and 108). The cumulative mortalities of the intraperitoneal infection increased along with the sporangiospore concentrations; the highest mortality was 90% with 108 CFU. Histopathological studies showed M. circinelloides could cause

a series of pathological changes in the host tissues and they disseminated in different viscera, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-737.html perhaps by the blood. This is the first report of M. circinelloides infection in yellow catfish. Mucor are opportunistic fungi belonging to the family Mucoraceae of the class Zygomycetes. They are ubiquitous in the environment Immune system and have been reported

to be pathogenic in birds, animals and humans (Lie & Njo-Injo, 1956; Sugar, 1992, 2005). Mucormycosis is usually associated with immunosuppression, trauma and subsequent surgery in the human host (Lehrer et al., 1980; Sugar, 1992, 2005; Kontoyiannis et al., 2000, 2005; Gonzalez et al., 2002; Almyroudis et al., 2006) and generally causes localized cutaneous infection with high morbidity and even high mortality when disseminated (Ribes et al., 2000; Lenane et al., 2003; Almyroudis et al., 2006). It is characterized by the formation of sexual spores (zygospores) and vegetative mycelium that lack septa, except to delimit old or injured hyphae or reproductive structures in Mucorales. Asexual reproduction occurs most commonly by the formation of nonmotile, unicelled sporangiospores in uni- or multispored sporangia or merosporangia. Although the infectivity and nosogenesis involved with human mucormycosis are well documented, the only report to date describing it as a pathogen for fish is that of Yang et al. (2006), who isolated a Mucor sp. from Takifugu obscurus in Jiangsu province, China. However, their identification results were inconclusive because they identified it by phenotype only to genus level. If a case report of mucormycosis does not identify the species, it may be difficult to associate a disease specifically with a species (Kontoyiannis et al.

A similar modification has previously been reported in MAP-induce

A similar modification has previously been reported in MAP-induced behavioral rhythms under ad lib MAP drinking (Natsubori et al., 2013b). The phase shift was decelerated when the MAP-induced behavioral rhythm was located outside the subjective night and accelerated when it was inside. The phenomenon is called relative coordination and is taken as evidence for two interacting oscillators with different periods (Aschoff, 1965). In this respect, it is of interest to note that in the SCN-intact rats circadian

www.selleckchem.com/products/Bortezomib.html Per2 rhythms in extra-SCN brain areas were only slightly phase-shifted by R-MAP in the present study (Fig. 7B) whereas the circadian rhythms in some brain areas were markedly phase-shifted by ad lib MAP in the previous studies (Masubuchi et al., 2000; Natsubori et al., 2013b). These seemingly inconsistent results could be explained by the phase relation between the SCN circadian pacemaker and MAO. In the previous studies, MAP-induced behavioral rhythms were 180° out of the subjective night, which might reduce Gefitinib the influence of the SCN circadian pacemaker on MAO. On the other hand, the activity band of MAP-induced behavioral rhythm in the present study was located close to the subjective night (Fig. 4A), and therefore the influence of the SCN circadian pacemaker would be large. R-MAP-induced phase shifts

of Per2 rhythms depended on the brain areas examined and also on the presence or absence of the SCN circadian pacemaker (Fig. 7D). R-MAP did not affect the circadian oscillation in the SCN at all. The

phase shifts in the OB and SN were significantly larger in the absence of the SCN than in the presence. The findings indicate that the SCN circadian pacemaker exerted a strong influence on these extra-SCN oscillations even in the presence of GPX6 MAO. The extent of influence was different among the extra-SCN oscillations, the largest being on the SN oscillation and the smallest on the CPU, of those regions so far examined. Several important insights into the oscillation mechanism of MAO are provided by these findings. Firstly, the extra-SCN oscillations in certain brain areas such as OB, PC and SN are regulated by both the SCN circadian pacemaker and MAO. Many brain areas exhibit independent circadian oscillations which are usually under the control of the SCN circadian pacemaker (Abe et al., 2002; Abraham et al., 2005), and not all of them are affected by MAP (Masubuchi et al., 2000). Secondly, effects of MAP on the extra-SCN oscillations are different depending on the brain areas. The influence is large in the OB and SN and small in the CPU, and this is also supported by previous results (Natsubori et al., 2013b). In addition, the direction of phase shift of extra-SCN oscillation is different depending on the brain areas.

Thus, the present work aims to elucidate in vivo the capacity of

Thus, the present work aims to elucidate in vivo the capacity of the E. faecalis SUF operon to complement the ISC and SUF systems from the Proteobacteria representatives A. vinelandii and E. coli. The buy GDC-0449 Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli strains used in this study are listed in Table 1, and plasmids used for in vivo experiments in Table 2. Escherichia coli were grown in the following

media: Luria broth (10.0 g L−1 tryptone, 5.0 g L−1 yeast extract, 5.0 g L−1 NaCl), and M9-glycerol minimal medium, supplemented as needed with 5.0 mM adenine, 0.3 mM leucine, 0.3 mM isoleucine, 0.1 mM nicotinic acid, 0.3 mM thiamine, and 0.3 mM valine. Azotobacter vinelandii was grown in Burk’s minimal medium (BN) containing 2.0% sucrose as the carbon source and 13.0 mM ammonium acetate as nitrogen source (Strandberg & Wilson, 1968). The following antibiotics were used in this study: ampicillin (100 μg mL−1), rifampicin (100 μg mL−1), kanamycin (50 μg mL−1), gentamicin (50 μg mL−1), tetracycline (50 μg mL−1), and vancomycin (30 μg mL−1). Arabinose was used at 0.3% w/v for expression in E. coli and A. vinelandii under arabinose promoter (pBAD). X-gal at a final concentration of 0.6 mg mL−1

was used for cloning insertion determination. Recipient strains used in this work have been described previously (Table 1) and confirmed in terms of promoter region arrangements; modifications (either insertions or mutations) carried out in this work did not alter any characteristic of expression which could result in polar effects. Azotobacter selleck inhibitor vinelandii strains were constructed by transformation experiments in which homologous reciprocal

recombination occurred between cloned, isolated A. vinelandii DNA in a recombinant plasmid and a corresponding genome region. As an example, the vector pEFSC31 was constructed first using PCR (Epicentre’s Failsafe PCR kit) to isolate the sufU gene from the chromosomal DNA of E. faecalis. The PCR primers were designed to add an NdeI restriction enzyme site at the N-terminus of sufU and a BglII restriction enzyme site at the C-terminus. The 0.7-kb PCR product was ligated into the pCR4-TOPO vector (Invitrogen TOPO Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK TA sequencing kit) or pCR-Blunt vector (Invitrogen). This plasmid was digested with NdeI and BglII and the resulting DNA fragment was ligated into the NdeI–BglII sites of pDB1568, putting expression of the SufU protein under control of the pBAD in a region of DNA containing the scrX gene. Other plasmids used in this study (Table 2) were constructed in a similar fashion. Incorporation of the SUF genes into the A. vinelandii genome was achieved as described by Jacobson et al. (1989a, b). DJ1418, used as the parent strain, contains the complete endogenous ISC operon and a lacZ:kanamycin resistance cartridge inserted into scrX.