Speech samples were acquired from 30 individuals carrying the mutant HIT gene (13 PreHD, 17 early stage HD) and 15 matched controls. Participants read a passage, produced a monologue and said the days of the week. Data were analysed acoustically for measures of timing, frequency and intensity. There was a clear effect of group across most acoustic measures,
so that speech performance differed in-line with disease progression. Comparisons across groups revealed significant differences between the control and the early stage HD group on measures of timing (e.g., speech rate). Participants carrying the mutant WIT gene presented Givinostat clinical trial with slower rates of speech, took longer to say words and produced greater silences between and within words compared to healthy controls. Importantly, speech this website rate showed a significant correlation to burden of disease scores. The speech of early stage HD differed significantly from controls. The speech of PreHD, although not reaching significance, tended to lie between the performance of controls and early stage HD. This suggests that changes in speech production appear to be developing prior to diagnosis. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
“Mapping metabolic “”signatures”" can provide new insights into addictive mechanisms and potentially identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
We examined the differences in metabolites related to the tyrosine, tryptophan, purine, and oxidative stress pathways between cocaine-dependent subjects and healthy controls. Several Cl-amidine research buy of these metabolites serve as biological indices underlying the mechanisms of reinforcement, toxicity, and oxidative
Metabolomic analysis was performed in 18 DSM-IV-diagnosed cocaine-dependent individuals with at least 2 weeks of abstinence and ten drug-free controls. Plasma concentrations of 37 known metabolites were analyzed and compared using a liquid chromatography electrochemical array platform. Multivariate analyses were used to study the relationship between severity of drug use [Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores] and biological measures.
Cocaine subjects showed significantly higher levels of n-methylserotonin (p < 0.0017) and guanine (p < 0.0031) and lower concentrations of hypoxanthine (p < 0.0002), anthranilate (p < 0.0024), and xanthine (p < 0.012), compared to controls. Multivariate analyses showed that a combination of n-methylserotonin and xanthine contributed to 73% of the variance in predicting the ASI scores (p < 0.0001). Logistic regression showed that a model combining n-methylserotonin, xanthine, xanthosine, and guanine differentiated cocaine and control groups with no overlap.