However, both types of vaccine cannot still elicit sufficient immune response to fully eliminate TB. Increasing evidence has shown that DNA vaccination at the mucosal site is superior to that at peripheral sites in eliciting immune response protection from a number of infectious agents, including viruses and bacteria ,  and . This CHIR-99021 datasheet is partially explained by the observation that memory T and B cells induced upon mucosal vaccination acquire mucosa-homing receptors and preferentially accumulated at the mucosal site of induction. However, mechanisms
that lead to elicit activation of memory T and B cells are still obscure. The cationic liposome acting as an adjuvant can greatly enhance the expression of recombinant plasmid due to the protective delivery of functional DNA resisting against DNAse in digestive tract to promote absorbance in cellular level . It is well
accepted that vaccination by oral administration, which effectively induces both systemic and mucosal immunity, has many advantages over injected peripheral immunization that induce protective immunity in the systemic compartment  and . It is known that intramuscular injection of Ag85A-DNA causes Th1 type immune response, while the gene gun injection mainly induces Th2 type immune response, and the naked DNA vaccine generally induces expression of antigen in the muscle cells after intramuscular injection ,  and . However, few studies focused on the antigen expression in the microenvironment Selleckchem Akt inhibitor of small intestine that
induces protective immune response against TB infection STK38 after oral DNA vaccination. In the present study, we observed that the Ag85A protein antigen was substantially expressed in small intestinal immune cells, especially in M cells and dendritic cells after oral administration of liposomal-pcDNA3.1+/Ag85A DNA, which induced Ag85A-specific Th1 dominant immune responses and Modulators enhanced cytolytic activity of IELs against Ag85A expressing cells. Furthermore, sIgA level was also elevated after immunization. These results indicated that the liposome encapsulated pcDNA3.1+/Ag85A DNA vaccine was effective to induce protective immune responses against TB infection in vivo. Especially, cellular compartment in the epithelium of small intestine plays a key role on the mediating of immune responses to eliminate TB. These findings have important understanding and implications for the design of new strategies based on oral DNA vaccine on regulation of immune response in protection against TB. The recombinant pcDNA3.1+/Ag85A plasmid was constructed, and it was transformed into competent DH5α, followed by extraction with Endotoxin-free Pure Yield Plasmid Extraction kit (Promega Corporation, city, USA).