8%) had primary adrenal lesions, including 4 with bilateral adren

8%) had primary adrenal lesions, including 4 with bilateral adrenal lesions and 4 with multiple nodules. Two patients had adrenocorticotropic hormone independent hypercortisolism. A total of 27

adrenal lesions were evaluated. The imaging characteristics of 5 of these lesions (18.5%) were not consistent with adenoma by noncontrast computerized tomography criteria. Positron emission tomography was positive in 7 of 10 cases (70%). A total of 12 nodules were surgically PD173074 in vivo resected from 10 adrenal glands. Pathological examination revealed macronodular adrenal hyperplasia in all specimens.

Conclusions: Unilateral and bilateral adrenal nodular hyperplasia was detected in a subset of patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. A functional endocrine evaluation is recommended when an adrenal lesion is discovered. Imaging frequently reveals lesions that are not typical of adenomas and positron emission tomography

may be positive. To date no patient has had adrenal malignancy, and active surveillance of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma adrenal nodules appears justified.”
“Current cognitive approaches postulate that obsessions and compulsions are caused and/or maintained by misinterpretations AG-014699 chemical structure about their meaning. This assumption has led to the development of cognitive therapeutic (CT) procedures designed to challenge the dysfunctional appraisals and beliefs patients have about their obsessions. Nonetheless, few studies have compared the efficacy of individual and group CT in changing the dysfunctional cognitions that hypothetically underlie Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this study. 44 OCD patients were assigned

to individual (n = 18) or group (n = 24) CT. Sixteen completed the individual CT, and 22 completed the group CT. The effects of the two CT conditions on depression and worry tendencies were comparable. Individual treatment was more effective than group treatment in decreasing scores on dysfunctional beliefs (responsibility, overestimation of threat. and intolerance to uncertainty) and the use of suppression as a thought Bcl-w control strategy. The post-treatment changes were maintained one year later. The correlations between symptom improvement (OCD severity change) and belief changes were moderate: in the individual treatment the greatest associations were with beliefs about thoughts (importance and control), whereas in the group treatment the greatest associations were with beliefs related to anxiety in general (threat overestimation and intolerance to uncertainty). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We determined the role of tumor enhancement on dynamic enhanced computerized tomography for differentiating pathological characteristics.

Materials and Methods: A total of 149 patients with renal tumor underwent dynamic enhanced computerized tomography at our university from June 2007 to November 2011. Tumors were treated surgically and pathological evaluation was done.

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