This was also confirmed by the immediate appearance of a yellow-c

This was also confirmed by the immediate appearance of a yellow-colored product when catechol was sprayed on

colonies in a Luria–Bertani agar plate (Stillwell et al., 1995) induced with phenanthrene, MG-132 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid or salicylic acid. However, none of these activities could be detected in the cell-free extract obtained from succinate-grown cells. Based on the HPLC, mass, UV-visible spectral data, along with the other observations as stated above, the metabolic pathways involved in the degradation of phenanthrene are proposed (Fig. 4). In the present study, the metabolism of phenanthrene appears to be similar to that reported for Staphylococcus sp. strain PN/Y (Mallick et al., 2007), but the strain PWTJD could not transform indole selleck chemicals llc to indigo (Ensley et al., 1983) as observed in strain PN/Y, indicating structural differences of phenanthrene ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase in these two strains. Interestingly,

the ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases from strain PWTJD could not be amplified using the most commonly used primers reported in the literature (Ni Chadhain et al., 2006; Cébron et al., 2008), signifying the possible presence of a structurally unique ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase in Ochrobactrum sp. strain PWTJD. Although the degradative abilities of the genus Ochrobactrum were primarily reported on methyl parathion (Qiu et al., 2006), phenol (El-Sayed et al., 2003), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (Yamada et al., 2008) and 4-nitrocatechol (Zhong et al., 2007), there are few preliminary reports on the degradation of a couple of PAHs by Ochrobactrum sp. (Zhang & Peng, 2008; Arulazhagan & Vasudevan, 2009; Wu et al., 2009). However, neither of the studies describes the structural nature of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase or the metabolic pathways involved Celecoxib in PAH assimilation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the detailed metabolic study of a PAH molecule by an Ochrobactrum species describing

the degradation of phenanthrene via meta-cleavage of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid. Moreover, in this study, the 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid meta-cleavage pathway is reported for the first time from a Gram-negative bacterial species. Further experiments in evaluating the structural nature of phenanthrene ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid meta-cleavage dioxygenase present in Ochrobactrum sp. strain PWTJD may provide a new insight into the microbial degradation PAHs in general. The authors gratefully acknowledge Professor P. Sil for reviewing the manuscript. This work was supported in part by a Grant-in aid from Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India (#19/34/2005-RE to T.K.D.), and Bose Institute, Kolkata, India. “
“Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are found worldwide in aquatic environments and may produce human infections.

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