Therefore, an effective, safe and practical mucosal adjuvant rema

Therefore, an effective, safe and practical mucosal adjuvant remains to be identified and characterized for the development MK 2206 of mucosal vaccines. Since NSP4 does not bind to GM1 receptors like CT or LT [13] it may not possess neurotoxic side effects. However future preclinical, safety trials will need to be undertaken to ensure NSP4 does not

enter the brain or possess other toxicity. Furthermore, we observed differences in adjuvant response depending upon the nature of the co-administered antigen. The presence of NSP4 induced a stronger immune response to the co-administered antigen compared to the immune response elicited by administering the same antigen alone. This finding correlates with the fact that inclusion of specific

adjuvants in vaccine preparations can modify the presentation modality of antigens to the immune system and/or improve the induction of the immune response over that induced by the same antigen given alone [28]. Virus-like particles as an alternative vaccine strategy is an important area in the field of rotavirus vaccinology. In this study we explored the ability of NSP4 to act as an adjuvant for non-replicating rotavirus VLP vaccines developed in our laboratory. We found that NSP4 retained its adjuvant properties even when administered within a NSP4-2/6 VLP. The observed adjuvant effect of NSP4-2/6 selleck was due to the presence of NSP4 since 2/6 VLPs given with antigen did not increase antigen-specific antibody responses. The addition of NSP4 to 2/6 VLPs could increase the adjuvanticity and immunogenicity of rotaviral vaccines and may alleviate the need for co-administered adjuvants. Future experiments will examine any adjuvant effect NSP4 exerts on the cellular arm of the immune system against co-administered

antigen, elucidate the mechanism by which NSP4 functions as an adjuvant and also determine if NSP4 also possesses adjuvant properties when administered by alternative routes. This work was supported by funding from the U.S. Public Health Service, The Enteric Pathogens Research Unit, Electron transport chain NIAID contract N01-A165299 and from the National Institutes of Health (grants DK30144, DK56338, AI080656), and E.C. was funded by a pediatric gastroenterology training fellowship (grant T32 DK07664) from the National Institutes of Health. We thank Dr. Jerry R. McGhee for providing the tetanus toxoid and Dr. John D. Clements for providing the mutant LT (LT-R192G). “
“Malaria (caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium) is responsible for deaths of 1–2 million humans a year, mostly children, making global eradication a public health priority and accelerating the search for an effective vaccine [1] and [2]. Plasmodium parasites express on surfaces of infective stages (the sporozoite and merozoite) a number of antigenic proteins that elicit an immune response on the part of the vertebrate host.

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