“The present study was conducted in which various physicoc

“The present study was conducted in which various physicochemical properties and acrylamide content in chips of a transgenic potato and the untransformed control, using the cultivar Snowden, during storage at 12 degrees C and 5 degrees C were characterized. The dry matter from the untransformed potato contained high amylose content during the various storage periods

whereas significantly (p <= 0.05) higher phosphorus content was observed in the transgenic potato, before and after storage. Resistant starch was significantly (p <= 0.05) higher in the transgenic potato before and after storage for 14 days at 12 degrees C. Chips made from the transgenic tubers stored at 5 degrees C had significantly lower acrylamide content (i.e., 59-69% less) as compared to those from the untransformed controls. A high positive correlation (p <= 0.05) between acrylamide and glucose, fructose and reducing sugars and a lower buy Buparlisib correlation with sucrose was observed. High negative correlation (p <= 0.05) between chip score and acrylamide was also observed. The present study shows that overexpression of Arabidopsis pyruvate decarboxylase in transgenic Snowden had increased

resistant starch and higher dry matter contents of phosphorus, and decreased acrylamide levels in potato chips made from these potatoes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Quantitative biological assessment protocols are needed for monitoring river status and evaluating river rehabilitation P5091 efforts. We conducted a standardized macroinvertebrate survey at 100 sites on 38 nonwadeable rivers in Wisconsin to construct, test, and apply an index of biotic integrity (IBI) intended to be such a bioassessment tool. We assigned independent samples to IBI development (n = 75) and IBI validation (n = 25) data sets. We placed Hester-Dendy artificial substrates at the sites for 6 wk and processed the samples of colonizing CH5424802 macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a 500-target

subsampling procedure plus a large-rare taxon search. Independent of the biota, we assigned an environmental disturbance score to each site based upon water chemistry, land cover, flow modification, and point-source pollution. Ten metrics that represent macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, composition, and function constitute the IBI: the number of taxa in: 1) Insecta or 2) Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT); % individuals that were: 3) Insecta, 4) intolerant EPT, 5) tolerant chironomids, 6) gatherers, 7) scrapers, or from 8) the dominant 3 taxa; 9) the mean pollution tolerance value; and 10) the number of unique ecological functional trait niches. Analyses on both the validation subset of sites and all sites inclusive confirmed that least-disturbed sites had the highest IBI scores, severely disturbed sites had the lowest scores, and moderately disturbed sites had intermediate scores.

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