“The anesthesia community is still divided as to the appropriate airway management in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Increasingly, gastroenterologists are comfortable with deep sedation (normally propofol) without endotracheal intubation. There are no comprehensive reviews addressing the various pros and cons of an un-intubated airway management. It is hoped that the present review will benefit both anesthesia providers and gastroenterologists. The reasons to avoid routine endotracheal intubation and the approaches for an un-intubated
anesthetic management are discussed. The special situations where endotracheal intubation is the preferred approach are mentioned. Many special techniques to manage airway ALK activation are illustrated.”
“A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether it is safe to divide the left innominate vein (LIV) in aortic arch surgery to improve access. Altogether, 228 relevant papers were found using the reported check details search, of which nine represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication,
patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Following LIV division, the venous drainage takes place via multiple collateral systems such as the azygous/hemiazygous, the internal mammary veins, the lateral thoracic and superficial thoracoabdominal veins, vertebral venous plexus 3-MA chemical structure as well as the transverse sinus. The possible complications are mainly left upper limb swelling
and neurological symptoms. In one case series of 14 patients, the LIV was divided and ligated to facilitate the exposure for aortic arch surgery. More than 2-year follow-up did not reveal upper limb oedema or neurological symptoms. In two cohorts of 52 patients, the LIV was ligated prior to the superior vena cava (SVC) resection for malignancy. During the mid-term follow-up, no neurological or upper limb symptoms were reported. Although in two studies with 72 and 70 patients undergoing SVC resection it was not specified how many of them had LIV ligation, no relevant complications were reported. In a report, LIV occlusion was observed in 4 patients undergoing left internal jagular vein catheterization for haemodialysis. The reported symptom was left arm swelling with no neurological problems. In a cohort of 18 patients undergoing SVC resection for malignancy and major vein reconstruction, 7 patients underwent ligation of the LIV with no neurological symptoms. It was also concluded that reconstruction of the LIV is not consistent with favourable patency. In a case series of 10 patients with central venous obstruction, collateral pathways to conduct efficient venous drainage were mapped. We conclude that division of the LIV is safe in selected patients and operations.