Summary

Although early results of phase I focal therap

Summary

Although early results of phase I focal therapy trials are encouraging, long-term oncological outcomes remain to be elucidated. Incorporation of these technological advances into large prospective trials is needed to establish focal therapy as an important asset in the urologist’s armamentarium against prostate cancer.”
“Objectives: To assess the development of face and hyoid bone in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) through lateral cephalometries.

Materials

JAK inhibitor and methods: Children aged 7-10 years with mixed dentition and with no previous otorhinolaryngologic, orthodontic or speech therapy treatments were studied. Twenty nasal breathers were compared to 20 mouth breathing children diagnosed as OSAS patients. All children underwent otorhinolaryngologic evaluation and cephalometries; children with OSAS also underwent nocturnal polysomnography in a sleep laboratory.

Results: Children with OSAS presented increase in total and lower anterior heights of the face when compared to nasal breathers. In addition, children with OSAS presented a significantly more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone than nasal breathers. No significant differences in upper, anterior or posterior heights of the face were observed between groups.

Conclusion: The results suggest that there are evident and early changes in facial growth and development among children with OSAS, characterized by increased total and inferior anterior

heights of the face, as well as more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial was a three-year, check details double-blind, multi-center, randomized clinical trial that evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol vs. placebo lozenges in the prevention of

dental caries in caries-active adults. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to investigate whether xylitol lozenges had a differential effect on cumulative caries increments on different tooth surfaces. Participants (ages 21-80 yrs) with at least one follow-up visit (n = 620) were examined at baseline, 12, 24, and 33 months. Negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for xylitol’s differential effect on cumulative caries Epoxomicin supplier increments on root and coronal surfaces and, among coronal surfaces, on smooth (buccal and lingual), occlusal, and proximal surfaces. Participants in the xylitol arm developed 40% fewer root caries lesions (0.23 D2FS/year) than those in the placebo arm (0.38 D2FS/year; IRR = 0.60; 95% CI [0.44, 0.81]; p < .001). There was no statistically significant difference between xylitol and control participants in the incidence of smooth-surface caries (p = .100), occlusal-surface caries (p = .408), or proximal-surface caries (p = .159). Among these caries-active adults, xylitol appears to have a caries-preventive effect on root surfaces (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00393055).

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