Quantum dots were reported to localize to different cellular comp

Quantum dots were reported to localize to different cellular compartment in a size-dependent manner [12]. Silica nanoparticles (40–80nm) can enter into the nucleus and localize to distinct subnuclear domains in the nucleoplasm, whereas thin and coarse ones located exclusively in the cytoplasm [13]. Gold nanocluster (1.4nm) intercalates within the major groove of DNA and is a potent inducer of cell death Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in human cancer cells [14]. Growing evidence suggests that the state of nanoparticles aggregation cannot be ignored; in fact, the toxicity

may depend on the size of the agglomerate and not on the original nanoparticle size itself [15, 16]. For example, in rats exposed by inhalation to 20nm or 250nm titanium Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dioxide (TiO2) particles, the half-times for alveolar clearance of polystyrene test particles were

proportional to the TiO2 particle surface area per million of macrophages [17, 18]. Clearly, a surface impurity, resulting from air or water contaminants such as bacterial endotoxin, could contribute to the cellular responses induced by nanomaterials, in particular immunological responses [16]. The same consideration is true for residual materials (surfactants or transition metals) arising from the synthetic process [6, 19, 20]. Nevertheless, the adsorption ability and surface activity are also involved in cellular influences of nanomaterials. When dispersed in culture medium, some metal oxide nanoparticles and CNTs could adsorb Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical proteins, often called “protein corona” such as serum albumin, or calcium, which could change the biological activity of nanomaterials. This adsorption could be particle size and time dependent. In these conditions, many nanoparticles form

secondary particles, which are a complex of nanoparticles and medium Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical components [21–26]. For example, adsorbed albumin on the CNT was involved in phagocytosis of the macrophage via scavenger receptor [27]. A surface-engineered functionalization also may be linked with the biological nanomaterials activity, although Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in this item that is a wanted effect. Moreover, examples of dose-dependent toxicity also are evaluated [6, 28, 29]. As pointed out in a recent review [6], the degree of recognition and internalization of nanomaterials likely influences their distribution and may determine Rolziracetam also their toxic potential. It has been reported that the number of internalized quantum dots (the intracellular dose) correlates with the toxicity in human breast cancer cell line [30]. Furthermore, the toxicity and cell death fate appear to correlate with the type of crystal structures [16, 31]. Finally, the nanomaterials degradability should also be taken into account (Figure 1). Nondegradable nanomaterials can accumulate into the cells and/or organs and exert damage effect as well as their degradation products [32–34]. However, it is not yet clear which of these parameters mainly influences the nanomaterials toxicity or if all of these features act NVP-LDE225 solubility dmso together [35].

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