Moreover, these could be implemented on vehicle-mounted systems t

Moreover, these could be implemented on vehicle-mounted systems to shorten sampling time and the amount of soil surveyed. The main principle of these applications concerns the measurement of the thermal infrared spectrum Pazopanib PDGFR of electromagnetic radiation emitted by soil samples depending on their temperature [24,25]. For in-field applications this technique should measure surface soil (0�C60 cm) temperature, that is influenced by soil-atmosphere interactions. This aspect makes unsuitable the use of calibration curves to relate temperature to SWC as physical or empirical relationships, which describe all the soil-atmosphere interactions.
In fact the general model describing the soil-atmosphere interaction is given by the energy balance equation [26]:Rn+M?H?��E=G(1)where Rn is the net radiation at soil surface, M represents the supply of energy to the surface by metabolism or absorption of energy by photosynthesis, H is the sensible heat flux, ��E is the latent heat flux by evapotranspiration and G is the soil heat flux.Adapting the energy balance Equation (1) to the proposed study and analyzing the water content on a bare soil after primary tillage and exposed to soil irradiance, the M becomes negligible and G is equal to:G?=?Gs+G1(2)where Gs is the heat variation of soil surface and Gl the heat flux in the soil by contact. The surface thermal variation will be related to Gs, H, ��E and Gl. In this case, these parameters will be dependent on agro-pedological and meteorological parameters such as air temperatures and humidity, SWC, irradiance, wind regimes, soil water potential and soil roughness.
The deterministic modelling of the environmental variables influencing the physical process which is developing in such a short time Anacetrapib of analysis (few seconds) would have been very complex.For the above mentioned reasons the system could be approached in a statistical way and the estimation of SWC innovatively implemented by using a multivariate analysis [27,28], taking into considerati
The field of wireless sensor networks is an emerging area of research that has been under intense study in recent years. These sensor networks represent a clear advance as regards practical future implementation, but most of usually proposed architectures face scalability problems when applied to our particular HTC requirements.Our problem involves the monitoring of wooden masterpieces and structures of heritage buildings. Given that in this environment maintenance is practically impossible, deployed nodes must work for years without operator intervention. These nodes were designed and developed with help from AIDIMA (Furniture, Wood and Packaging Technology Institute) and are being used for monitoring heritage wood structures and masterpieces.

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