LB plates were supplemented with ampicillin (100 μg mL−1), or kan

LB plates were supplemented with ampicillin (100 μg mL−1), or kanamycin (35 μg mL−1) when necessary. Both M9 liquid media and agar plates supplemented with 0.4% glucose were used for evaluating the superoxide resistance phenotype. The indicator 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) was added to LB plates at a final

concentration of 40 μg mL−1. Cells were treated with 50 μM PQ, 5 mM SAL, or 5 mM DIP and were incubated at 37 °C with shaking for 1 h where indicated. Susceptibility testing was performed on Mueller Hinton (MH) plates. mdtB::frt, mdtF::frt, acrB::frt, emrB::frt, acrD::frt, macB::frt, mdtC::frt, acrE::frt, Linsitinib cell line emrY::frt J. L. Rosner and R. G. Martin, in preparation The microarray analysis procedure was performed as previously reported (Fabrega et al., 2010). Briefly, 20 μg of total RNA extracted from a mid-exponential phase culture was labeled with Cy-3-dUTP (RNA from strain PS5) or Cy-5-dUTP (RNA from strain NorE5). Labeled cDNA samples were hybridized for 5 h at 65 °C with the DNA microarray chip, which contained 4058 open reading frames (ORFs) selleck compound representing 95% of E. coli ORFs. Axon Scanner GENPIX 1.0 was used to obtain the resulting 16-bit TIFF images that were analyzed using scanalyze software ( The reproducibility of the technique

was assessed in three separate experiments. A normalized relative Cy5/Cy3 ratio > 2 was considered as a significant increase in expression and a normalized relative Cy3/Cy5 ratio > 2 was considered as a significant decrease in expression when observed for all the three different experiments performed. RNA extraction and analysis was performed according to a previous study (Fabrega et al., Amrubicin 2009). Briefly, strains were incubated until they reached OD600 nm values of 0.5–0.6. Cultures were

mixed with RNA protect Bacteria Reagent (Qiagen) and subsequently treated with TE buffer supplemented with lysozyme. Total RNA was extracted using RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), and samples were then treated with DNA-free DNase (Ambion). RT-PCR was performed using the AccessQuick RT-PCR System (Promega). gapA (a housekeeping gene) was defined as the internal control. The retrotranscription process was performed using 500 ng of RNA at 45 °C for 45 min followed by a standard PCR program. Results were corroborated from two independent RNA extractions and amplifications. A lacZ transcriptional fusion was constructed with the ompN80 and the ydbK49 fragments (Simons et al., 1987). Amplification of both fragments was carried out by using strain GC4468 as template. The 405 bp ompN80 fragment started from −384 to +21, relative to the ATG, whereas the 427 bp ydbK49 fragment started from −401 to +26 (Fig. 1). The amplified DNA fragments were digested with EcoRI and BamHI and ligated to the similarly cut vector pRS551. Recombinant plasmids were isolated in DH5α cells by selection for ampicillin resistance and verified by sequence analysis.

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