Figure 6 The relationship between increasing amounts of average daily alcohol consumption and the relative risk for digestive diseases (i.e., liver cirrhosis and pancreatitis), with lifetime abstainers serving as the reference group. For Tubacin liver cirrhosis, alcohol��s … Alcohol consumption also has been linked to an increase in the risk for acute and chronic pancreatitis. Specifically, heavy alcohol consumption (i.e., more than, on average, 48 grams pure ethanol, or about two standard drinks, per day) leads to a noticeably elevated risk of pancreatitis, whereas consumption below 48 grams per day is associated with a small increase in risk of pancreatitis (see figure 6).
Higher levels of alcohol consumption Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries may affect Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the risk of pancreatitis through the same pathways that cause liver damage, namely the formation of free radicals, acetaldehyde, and fatty acid ethyl esters during the metabolism of alcohol in damaged pancreatic acinar cells (Vonlaufen et al. 2007). Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease caused by the body��s own immune system attacking certain cells in the body (i.e., an autoimmune reaction). Although there is insufficient biological evidence to indicate that alcohol is causally linked with psoriasis, many observational studies have determined a detrimental impact of drinking on psoriasis, especially in male patients. Alcohol is hypothesized to induce immune dysfunction that results in relative immunosuppression. In addition, alcohol may increase the production of inflammatory cytokines and cell cycle activators, such as cyclin D1 and keratinocyte growth factor, that could lead to excessive multiplication of skin cells (i.
e., epidermal hyperproliferation). Finally, alcohol may exacerbate disease progression by interfering with compliance with treatment regimens (Gupta et Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries al. 1993; Zaghloul and Goodfield 2004). Alcohol��s Effects on Other Medication Regimens Alcohol can affect cognitive capacity, leading to impaired judgment and a decreasing ability to remember important information, including when to take medications for other conditions (Braithwaite et al. 2008; Hendershot et al. 2009; Parsons et al. 2008). Although the relationship between alcohol consumption and adherence to treatment regimens mainly has been studied in regards to adherence to HIV antiretroviral treatment (Braithwaite and Bryant 2010; Hendershot et al.
2009; Neuman et al. 2012), research also has shown that alcohol consumption and alcohol misuse impact adherence Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries to medications for other chronic diseases, with significant Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries or almost-significant effects (Bates et al. 2010; Bryson et al. 2008; Coldham et al. 2002; Verdoux et al. 2000). Thus, for diseases or conditions managed Brefeldin_A by pharmacotherapy, alcohol consumption likely is associated with increased morbidity and even mortality (if nonadherence to the medication could be fatal) if drinking results in nonadherence to medication regimens.