cava regulated the expression and activity of gamma-secretase and

cava regulated the expression and activity of gamma-secretase and alpha-secretase, leading to a reduction in A beta

production by the stable cells. Our data indicate that E. cava is a novel natural-product candidate for AD treatment, although further in vivo studies are needed. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Enveloped double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) bacterial virus Pseudomonas phage phi 6 has been developed into an advanced assembly system where purified virion proteins and genome segments self-assemble into infectious viral particles, inferring the assembly pathway. The most intriguing step is the membrane assembly occurring inside the bacterial cell. Here, we demonstrate that the middle virion shell, made of protein 8, associates with the expanded viral core particle and the virus-specific

membrane Mdivi1 molecular weight vesicle.”
“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. Considerable evidence suggests that free radical formation and oxidative stress might play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present investigation we evaluated the therapeutic potential of methylparaben (MP) a well known pharmaceutical preservative against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and in a mouse model of PD. At nanomolar concentrations MP (0.01, 0.1 and 1 nM) significantly attenuated the 6-OHDA- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The reactive oxygen species generated by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells was also inhibited by MP in a concentration dependent fashion. Further, intranigral damage

induced by stereotaxically VE821 injecting 6-OHDA in mouse brain was significantly attenuated by MP treatment. MP (1, 10 or 50 mu g/kg, i.p.) prevented apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and significantly improved motor deficits in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. The cognitive impairments as evaluated by passive avoidance and Y-maze task in mice were also attenuated by MP concentration Selleck MK-0518 dependently. Immunohistochemical analysis of substantia nigra in MP treated mice showed significantly higher number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells. Furthermore, MP also suppressed the lipid peroxidation products in 6-OHDA-lesioned mouse brain tissues. Considering the results obtained, the marked neuroprotection exhibited by MP might be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. In conclusion, this study reports the neuroprotective properties of MP in experimental models of PD for the first time and can be developed as a potential therapeutic agent. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“During human adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) infection, an excess of penton base and fiber proteins are produced which form dodecahedral particles composed of 12 pentamers of penton base and 12 trimers of fiber protein. No biological functions have yet been ascribed to Ad3 dodecahedra.

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