A recent study indicated that FleQ is a

A recent study indicated that FleQ is a selleck chemicals llc cyclic-di-GMP receptor that binds cyclic-di-GMP, causing FleQ to dissociate from DNA and then derepress transcription from the pel promoter (Hickman & Harwood, 2008). This repressor activity also required FleN, a predicted ATPase (Hickman & Harwood, 2008). FleQ is also an important factor that regulates the expression of flagella biosynthesis genes in Xcc strain XC17 (Yang et al., 2009). However, deletion of fleQ had no significant effects on motility

and exopolysaccharide synthesis in Xcc 8004 (Fig. 4), suggesting that the function of FleQ may differ in bacterial strains. Mutation of fleQ in the ΔvemR mutant resulted in an increase in motility and exopolysaccharide content in Xcc, indicating that FleQ might act as a repressor of the expression of flagella and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes. The function of the RR is controlled by phosphorylation, which is dependent on the cognate histidine kinase. Although the cognate histidine kinase of VemR has Crenolanib solubility dmso not been identified, alignment of the protein sequences of VemR, OmpR and CheY indicates that aspartate56 (D56) is the site of phosphorylation in the VemR protein (Fig. 1b). As shown in Fig. 5, mutation of the putative phosphorylation site does not reduce Xcc exopolysaccharide synthesis, motility or virulence significantly, suggesting

that VemR may have an alternative phosphorylation site. When the normal site of phosphorylation (D57) of CheY is replaced with N (CheYD57N) and CheZ, a protein that considerably enhances dephosphorylation of CheY, is absent, CheY(D57N) can be phosphorylated at serine (S56) (Appleby & Bourret, 1999). S56A substitution has no effect on CheY activity, but the S56A/D57N double mutant is inactive (Appleby & Bourret, 1999). However, CheY(D57E) has no activity in

vivo, despite its ability to be phosphorylated in vitro (Appleby & Bourret, 1999). The VemR protein has no hydroxyamino acid (ser55) immediately adjacent to D56 in the N-terminal region (Fig. 1a), indicating that another amino acid residue might be phosphorylated. Some studies have shown that CheB(D11K) in E. coli has increased methylesterase activity and a constitutively activated protein conformation in the absence of phosphorylation because CheB(D11K) cannot be phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro (Stewart, 1993). However, substitution of aspartate11 in the VemR protein, corresponding to aspartate11 Olopatadine in CheB, with lysine did not cause increased motility, exopolysaccharide content and virulence (Fig. 5), suggesting that the function of aspartate11 in VemR is not the same as that in CheB. Considering that the double mutant strain, vemR(D11K/D56A), has a phenotype similar to the null mutant, ΔvemR (Fig. 5), aspartate11 might be the alternate phosphorylation site in VemR when the normal phosphorylation site, aspartate56, cannot act as a phosphate group receptor. Further investigation is required to validate VemR–FleQ signaling in sensing environmental and host signals.

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